This study of the role and impact of the subject selector in academic libraries is unique and long overdue. We focused on the Pac-12 university libraries, a representative sample of nationwide academic libraries. The strength of our investigation is this small, focused sample size and unique statistical analysis of subject specialists. There is a wide variety among these libraries with respect to the hiring requirements for MLIS, the MLIS with an additional advanced-subject master’s degree, and those libraries who hire non-MLIS librarians. This investigation has the possibility of promoting greater awareness for the future of subject specialists in academic libraries.
This dataset comprises MODTRAN radiative transfer simulations used to determine scene-specific enhancement spectra for matched filter retrieval of CH4 and CO2 concentrations from imaging spectroscopy data. An example implementation to generate a enhancement spectrum is also included.
Environmental noise may affect hearing and a variety of non-auditory disease processes. There is some evidence that, like other environmental hazards, noise may be differentially distributed across communities based on socioeconomic status. We aimed to a) predict daytime noise pollution levels and b) assess disparities in daytime noise exposure in Chicago, Illinois. We measured 5-minute daytime noise levels (Leq, 5-min) at 75 randomly selected sites in Chicago in March, 2019. Geographically-based variables thought to be associated with noise were obtained, and used to fit a noise land-use regression model to estimate the daytime environmental noise level at the centroid of the census blocks. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from the City of Chicago for the 77 community areas, and associations with daytime noise levels were assessed using spatial autoregressive models. Mean sampled noise level (Leq, 5-min) was 60.6 dBA. The adjusted R2 and root mean square error of the noise land use regression model and the validation model were 0.60 and 4.67 dBA and 0.51 and 5.90 dBA, respectively. Nearly 75% of city blocks and 85% of city communities have predicted daytime noise level higher than 55 dBA. Of the socioeconomic variables explored, only community per capita income was associated with mean community predicted noise levels, and was highest for communities with incomes in the 2nd quartile. Both the noise measurements and land-use regression modeling demonstrate that Chicago has levels of environmental noise likely contributing to the total burden of environmental stressors. Noise is not uniformly distributed across Chicago; it is associated with proximity to roads and public transportation, and is higher among communities with mid-to-low incomes per capita, which highlights how socially and economically disadvantaged communities may be disproportionately impacted by this environmental exposure.
Significance: Current medical imaging systems have many limitations for applications in cardiovascular diseases. New technologies may overcome these limitations. Particularly interesting are technologies for diagnosis of cardiac diseases, e.g. fibrosis, myocarditis, and transplant rejection.
Aim: To introduce and assess a new optical system capable of assessing cardiac muscle tissue using light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) in conjunction with machine learning.
Approach: We applied an ovine model to investigate if the new LSS system is capable of estimating densities of cell nuclei in cardiac tissue. We measured the nuclear density using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and image processing. Spectra acquired from the same cardiac tissues were analyzed with spectral clustering and convolutional neural networks to assess feasibility and reliability of density quantification.
Results: Spectral clustering revealed distinct groups of spectra correlated to ranges of nuclear density. Convolutional neural networks correctly classified 3 groups of spectra with low, medium, or high nuclear density with 95.00±11.77% (mean and standard deviation) accuracy. The analysis revealed sensitivity of the accuracy to wavelength range and subsampling of spectra.
Conclusions: LSS and machine learning are capable of assessing nuclear density in cardiac tissues. The approach could be useful for diagnosis of cardiac diseases associated with an increase of nuclei.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Vibration of Natural Rock Arches and Towers Excited by Helicopter-Sourced Infrasound," where we investigate the vibration response of seven landforms to helicopter-sourced infrasound during controlled flight. Included are time-series vibration data of the landforms and nearby ground during and before helicopter flight, time-series infrasound data, 3D photogrammetry models of the studied landforms, and GPS data from the helicopter.
This collection includes radial component displacement seismograms in the time window including the SKS, SKKS and SPdKS seismic arrivals. These data all interact with the Samoa ultra-low velocity zone at the core-mantle boundary. All data used in the study of Krier et al., 2021 (JGR) is included in this collection. and We analyzed 4,754 broadband seismic recordings of the SKS, SKKS, and SPdKS wavefield from 13 high quality events sampling the Samoa ultralow-velocity zone (ULVZ). We measured differential travel-times and amplitudes between the SKKS and SKS arrivals, which are highly sensitive to the emergence of the SPdKS seismic phase, which is in turn highly sensitive to lowermost mantle velocity perturbations such as generated by ULVZs. We modeled these data using a 2-D axi-symmetric waveform modeling approach and are able to explain these data with a single ULVZ. In order to predict both travel-time and amplitude perturbations we found that a large ULVZ length in the great circle arc direction on the order of 10° or larger is required. The large ULVZ length limits acceptable ULVZ elastic parameters. Here we find that δVS and δVP reductions from 20% to 22% and 15% to 17% respectively gives us the best fit, with a thickness of 26 km. Initial 3-D modeling efforts do not recover the extremes in the differential measurements, demonstrating that 3-D effects are important and must be considered in the future. However, the 3-D modeling is generally consistent with the velocity reductions recovered with the 2-D modeling. These velocity reductions are compatible with a compositional component to the ULVZ. Furthermore, geodynamic predictions for a compositional ULVZ that is moving predict a long linear shape similar to the shape of the Samoa ULVZ we confirm in this study.
Using a suite of numerical calculations, we consider the long-term evolution of
circumbinary debris from the Pluto--Charon giant impact. Initially, these solids
have large eccentricity and pericenters near Charon's orbit. On time scales of
100--1000 yr, dynamical interactions with Pluto and Charon lead to the ejection
of most solids from the system. As the dynamics moves particles away from the
barycenter, collisional damping reduces the orbital eccentricity of many particles.
These solids populate a circumbinary disk in the Pluto-Charon orbital plane; a large
fraction of this material lies within a `satellite zone' that encompasses the orbits
of Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Compared to the narrow rings generated from the
debris of a collision between a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and Charon,
disks produced after the giant impact are much more extended and may be a less promising option for producing small circumbinary satellites.
This dataset represents the de-identified raw results of a 16-question, online survey (via REDCap) collected in August 2019 to 224 public library staff who were sponsored for a Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sponsorship program had an impact on public library staff to provide consumer health information. and Objective: In 2018, the Network of the National Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) launched a national sponsorship program to support U.S. public library staff in completing the Medical Library Association’s (MLA) Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The primary objective of this research project was to determine if completion of the sponsored specialization was successful in improving public library staff ability to provide consumer health information and whether it resulted in new services, programming, or outreach activities at public libraries. Secondary objectives of this research were to determine motivation for and benefits of the specialization and to determine the impact on sponsorship on obtaining and continuing the specialization.
Methods: To evaluate the sponsorship program, we developed and administered a 16-question online survey via REDCap in August 2019 to 224 public library staff that were sponsored during the first year of the program. We measured confidence and competence in providing consumer health information using questions aligned with the eight Core Competencies for Providing Consumer Health Information Services . Additionally, the survey included questions about new consumer health information activities at public libraries, public library staff motivation to obtain the specialization, and whether it led to immediate career gains. To determine the overall value of the NNLM sponsorship, we measured whether funding made it more likely for participants to complete or continue the specialization.
Results: Overall, 136 participants (61%) responded to the survey. Our findings indicated that the program was a success: over 80% of participants reported an increase in core consumer health competencies, with a statistically significant improvement in mean competency scores after completing the specialization. Ninety percent of participants have continued their engagement with NNLM, and over half offered new health information programs and services at their public library. All respondents indicated that completing the specialization met their expectations, but few reported immediate career gains. While over half of participants planned to renew the specialization or obtain the more advanced, Level II specialization, 72% indicated they would not continue without the NNLM sponsorship.
Conclusion: Findings indicate that NNLM sponsorship of the CHIS specialization was successful in increasing the ability of public library staff to provide health information to their community.
This study investigates impacts of altering subgrid-scale mixing in “convection-permitting” km-scale horizontal grid spacing (∆h) simulations by applying either constant or stochastic multiplicative factors to the horizontal mixing coefficients within the Weather Research and Forecasting model. In quasi-idealized 1-km ∆h simulations of two observationally based squall line cases, constant enhanced mixing produces larger updraft cores that are more dilute at upper levels, weakens the cold pool, rear inflow jet, and front-to-rear flow of the squall line, and degrades the model’s effective resolution. Reducing mixing by a constant multiplicative factor has the opposite effect on all metrics. Completely turning off parameterized horizontal mixing produces bulk updraft statistics and squall line mesoscale structure closest to a LES “benchmark” among all 1-km simulations, although the updraft cores are too undilute. The stochastic mixing scheme, which applies a multiplicative factor to the mixing coefficients that varies stochastically in time and space, is employed at 0.5-, 1-, and 2-km ∆h. It generally reduces mid-level vertical velocities and enhances upper-level vertical velocities compared to simulations using the standard mixing scheme, with more substantial impacts at 1-km and 2-km ∆h compared to 0.5-km. The stochastic scheme also increases updraft dilution to better agree with the LES for one case, but has less impact on the other case. Stochastic mixing acts to weaken the cold pool but without a significant impact on squall line propagation. It also does not affect the model’s overall effective resolution unlike applying constant multiplicative factors to the mixing coefficients.
We consider a scenario where the small satellites of Pluto and Charon grew within a disk of debris from an impact between Charon and a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). After Charon's orbital motion boosts the debris into a disk-like structure, rapid orbital damping of meter-sized or smaller objects is essential to prevent the subsequent reaccretion or dynamical ejection by the binary. From analytical estimates and simulations of disk evolution, we estimate an impactor radius of 30-100 km; smaller (larger) radii apply to an oblique (direct) impact. Although collisions between large TNOs and Charon are unlikely today, they were relatively common within the first 0.1-1 Gyr of the solar system. Compared to models where the small satellites agglomerate in the debris left over by the giant impact that produced the Pluto-Charon binary planet, satellite formation from a later impact on Charon avoids the destabilizing resonances that sweep past the satellites during the early orbital expansion of the binary.