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  1. Supporting data for 'Tree carbon allocation explains forest drought-kill and recovery patterns'.

    Work
    Description: The mechanisms governing tree drought mortality and recovery remain a subject of inquiry and active debate given their role in the terrestrial carbon cycle and their concomitant impact on climate change. Counter-intuitively, many trees do not die during the drought itself. Indeed, observations globally have documented that trees often grow for several years after drought before mortality. A combination of meta-analysis and tree physiological models demonstrate that optimal carbon allocation after drought explains observed patterns of delayed tree mortality and provides a predictive recovery framework. Specifically, post-drought, trees attempt to repair water transport tissue and achieve positive carbon balance through regrowing drought-damaged xylem. Further, the number of years of xylem regrowth required to recover function increases with tree size, explaining why drought mortality increases with size. These results indicate that tree resilience to drought-kill may increase in the future, provided that CO2 fertilization facilitates more rapid xylem regrowth.
    Keyword: drought, optimality theory, hydraulic-carbon coupling, CO2 fertilization, carbon metabolism, and vegetation model
    Creator: Schwalm, C., Detto, M., Bartlett, M. K., Schahher, B., Anderegg, W. R. L., Trugman, Anna T., Medvigy, D., and Pacala, S. W.
    Owner: Anna Trugman
    Date Uploaded: 08/08/2018
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: Spring 2018
    Rights: CC BY NC - Allows others to use and share your data non-commercially and with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5N29V4F
    Contact Email: a.trugman@utah.edu
    Funders: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Grant No. 2017-07164
  2. BIG-LoVE data

    Work
    Description: Background. Common cold viruses create significant health and financial burdens, and understanding key loci of transmission would help focus control strategies. This study (1) examines factors that influence when individuals transition from a negative to positive test (acquisition) or a positive to negative test (loss) of rhinovirus (HRV) and other respiratory tract viruses in 26 households followed weekly for one year, (2) investigates evidence for intrahousehold and interhousehold transmission and the characteristics of individuals implicated in transmission, and (3) builds data-based simulation models to identify factors that most strongly affect patterns of prevalence. Methods. We detected HRV, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, influenza and bocavirus with the FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC). We used logistic regression to find covariates affecting acquisition or loss of HRV including demographic characteristics of individuals, their household, their current infection status, and prevalence within their household and across the population. We apply generalized linear mixed models to test robustness of results. Results. Acquisition of HRV was less probable in older individuals and those infected with a coronavirus, and higher with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Loss of HRV is reduced with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Within households, only children and symptomatic individuals show evidence for transmission, while between households only a higher number of infected older children (ages 5-19) increases the probability of acquisition. Coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and bocavirus also show evidence of intrahousehold transmission. Simulations show that age-dependent susceptibility and transmission have the largest effects on mean HRV prevalence. Conclusions. Children are most likely to acquire and most likely to transmit HRV both within and between households, with infectiousness concentrated in symptomatic children. Simulations predict that the spread of HRV and other respiratory tract viruses can be reduced but not eliminated by practices within the home.
    Keyword: viral epidemiology, longitudinal study, Utah, viral interactions, epidemiology, coronavirus, rhinovirus, respiratory disease, and respiratory tract virus
    Creator: Frederick R. Adler
    Contributor: Andrew Pavia, Carrie L. Byington, and Krow Ampofo
    Owner: Frederick Adler
    Location: Salt Lake City
    Date Uploaded: 07/05/2018
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: August 2009 - August 2010
    Rights: CC BY NC - Allows others to use and share your data non-commercially and with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5XG9P97
    Contact Email: adler@math.utah.edu
    Funders: National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 21st Century Science Initiative Grant from the James S McDonnell Foundation, The HA and Edna Benning Presidential Endowment, The Primary Children's Hospital Foundation, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Pediatric Clinical and Translational Scholars Program
  3. Supplemental data for 'Soil moisture drought as a major driver of carbon cycle uncertainty", Geophysical Research Letters

    Work
    Description: Future projections suggest an increase in drought globally with climate change. Current vegetation models typically regulate the plant photosynthetic response to soil moisture stress through an empirical function, rather than a mechanistic response where plant water potentials respond to changes in soil water. This representation of soil moisture stress may introduce significant uncertainty into projections for the terrestrial carbon cycle. We examined the use of the soil moisture limitation function in historical and future emissions scenarios in nine Earth system models. We found that soil moisture-limited productivity across models represented a large and uncertain component of the simulated carbon cycle, comparable to 3-286% of current global productivity. Approximately 40-80% of the intermodel variability was due to the functional form of the limitation equation alone. Our results highlight the importance of implementing mechanistic water limitation schemes in models and illuminate several avenues for improving projections of the land carbon sink.
    Keyword: carbon cycle, Water limitation , drought, Gross primary productivity, soil moisture, and Earth system modeling
    Creator: Anderegg, William R.L., Mankin, Justin S., Medvigy, David, and Trugman, Anna T.
    Owner: Anna Trugman
    Date Uploaded: 06/25/2018
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: Spring 2016
    Rights: CC BY – Allows others to use and share your data, even commercially, with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5707ZMS
    Contact Email: a.trugman@utah.edu
    Funders: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agricultural and Food Research Initiative Competitive Programme, Ecosystem Services and Agro-ecosystem Management, grant no. 2017-05521, National Science Foundation grant 1714972, US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES) Program award DE-SC0014363 , National Science Foundation Award 1151102 , and USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Grant No. 2017-07164
  4. Data related to electric field enhancements along ocean-continent boundaries during space weather hazards.

    Work
    Description: This dataset contains the electric field data sampled along ocean-continent boundaries during space weather hazards. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is used to study potential space weather hazards to electric power grids located at the proximity of the coast. The most of the data are in floating point representation, and the data files are in .txt format. The data can be visualized using software such as MATLAB and Python. The data can be used to plot electric and magnetic fields along the ocean-continent boundaries for different scenarios (different depths of an ocean, different conductivities of a lithosphere and different frequencies of ionospheric disturbance).
    Keyword: Electric field, United States coast, GIC, Ocean-continental boundary, Space weather hazards, Geomagnetically induced currents, and Electrical engineering
    Creator: Pokhrel, Santosh, Rodriguez, Miguel, Bernabeu, Emanuel, Nguyen, Bach, and Simpson, Jamesina
    Owner: Santosh Pokhrel
    Location: Simulation
    Date Uploaded: 02/14/2018
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: Aug 2016 to Jan 2018
    Rights: Public Domain – This data is free of copyright restrictions (e.g. government sponsored data).
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5PC30H5
    Contact Email: santosh.pokhrel1991@gmail.com
    Funders: NSF
  5. Data for: Restitution Characteristics of His Bundle and Working Myocardium in Isolated Rabbit Hearts

    Work
    Description: The Purkinje system (PS) and the His bundle have been recently implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate after 1-2 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF). It is unknown whether activations during VF propagate through the His-Purkinje system to other portions of the the working myocardium (WM). Little is known about restitution characteristic differences between the His bundle and working myocardium at short cycle lengths. In this study, rabbit hearts (n=9) were isolated, Langendorff- perfused, and electromechanically uncoupled with blebbistatin (10 μM). Pacing pulses were delivered directly to the His bundle. By using standard glass microelectrodes, action potentials duration (APD) from the His bundle and WM were obtained simultaneously over a wide range of stimulation cycle lengths (CL). The global F-test indicated that the two restitution curves of the His bundle and the WM are statistically significantly different (P<0.05). Also, the APD of the His bundle was significantly shorter than that of WM throughout the whole pacing course (P<0.001). The CL at which alternans developed in the His bundle vs. the WM were shorter for the His bundle (134.2±13.1ms vs. 148.3±13.3ms, P<0.01) and 2:1 block developed at a shorter CL in the His bundle than in WM (130.0±10.0 vs. 145.6±14.2ms, P<0.01). The His bundle APD was significantly shorter than that of WM under both slow and rapid pacing rates, which suggest that there may be an excitable gap during VF and that the His bundle may conduct wavefronts from one bundle branch to the other at short cycle lengths and during VF.
    Keyword: action potential duration, cardiology, microelectrode, His bundle, alternans, working myocardium, rabbit, ventricular fibrillation, and restitution curve
    Creator: Hu, Nan, Huang, Shangwei, Ranjan, Ravi, Panitchob, Nuttanont, Huang, Liqun, and Dosdall, Derek
    Owner: Nuttanont Panitchob
    Publisher: The Hive: University of Utah Data Repository
    Location: Salt Lake City, UT
    Date Uploaded: 10/12/2017
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: 20160321 to 20160525
    Rights: CCO – As the data author, you are choosing to place your data into the public domain.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S50R9MJX
    Contact Email: Derek.Dosdall@utah.edu
    Funders: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health
  6. Archive of the High Resolution Rapid Refresh model

    Work
    Description: Weather-related research often requires synthesizing vast amounts of data that need archival solutions that are both economical and viable during and past the lifetime of the project. Public cloud computing services (e.g., from Amazon, Microsoft, or Google) or private clouds managed by research institutions are providing object data storage systems potentially appropriate for long-term archives of such large geophysical data sets. We illustrate the use of a private cloud object store developed by the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) at the University of Utah. Since early 2015, we have been archiving thousands of two-dimensional gridded fields (each one containing over 1.9 million values over the contiguous United States) from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) data assimilation and forecast modeling system. The archive is being used for retrospective analyses of meteorological conditions during high-impact weather events, assessing the accuracy of the HRRR forecasts, and providing initial and boundary conditions for research simulations. The archive is accessible interactively and through automated download procedures for researchers at other institutions that can be tailored by the user to extract individual two-dimensional grids from within the highly compressed files. Characteristics of the CHPC object storage system are summarized relative to network file system storage or tape storage solutions. The CHPC storage system is proving to be a scalable, reliable, extensible, affordable, and usable archive solution for our research.
    Keyword: forecasts, weather, atmospheric science, analyses, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction
    Subject: atmospheric science and numerical weather prediction
    Creator: Horel, John and Blaylock, Brian
    Contributor: NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory , NOAA Environmental Modeling Center, and University of Utah Center for High Performance Computing
    Owner: John Horel
    Publisher: University of Utah
    Location: Alaska and Contiguous United States
    Language: English and binary
    Date Uploaded: 08/24/2017
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: April 18, 2015 to present
    Rights: CC BY – Allows others to use and share your data, even commercially, with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5JQ0Z5B
    Contact Email: brian.blaylock@utah.edu
  7. HPV Vaccine Survey Responses

    Work
    Description: Background: To assess the demographic and attitudinal factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 18–26 year old women in Utah. Method: Between January 2013 and December 2013, we surveyed 325 women from the University of Utah Community Clinics about their HPV vaccine related beliefs and behaviors. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from logistic regression models to identify variables related to HPV vaccine initiation and series completion. Results: Of the 325 participants, 204 (62.8 %) had initiated the vaccine and 159 (48.9 %) had completed the 3-dose series. The variables associated with HPV vaccine initiation were lower age (OR = 1.18 per year); being unmarried (OR = 3.62); not practicing organized religion (OR = 2.40); knowing how HPV spreads (OR = 6.29); knowing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer (OR = 3.90); a belief in the importance of preventive vaccination (OR = 2.45 per scale unit); strength of doctor recommendation (OR = 1.86 per scale unit); and whether a doctor’s recommendation was influential (OR = 1.70 per scale unit). These variables were also significantly associated with HPV vaccine completion. Conclusion: The implications of these findings may help inform policies and interventions focused on increasing HPV vaccination rates among young women. For example, without this information, programs might focus on HPV awareness; however, the results of this study illustrate that awareness is already high (near saturation) in target populations and other factors, such as strong and consistent physician recommendations, are more pivotal in increasing likelihood of vaccination. Additionally, our findings indicate the need for discussions of risk assessment be tailored to the young adult population.
    Keyword: Vaccination, Vaccine series, Gardasil, HPV, Human Papillomavirus, Immunization, Completion, and Intention
    Subject: Patient Compliance and Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Creator: Wilson, Andrew and Kepka, Deanna
    Contributor: University of Utah Primary Care Research Network, Huntsman Cancer Institute, and Huntsman Cancer Foundation
    Owner: Andrew Wilson
    Publisher: University of Utah
    Location: Utah
    Language: English
    Date Uploaded: 08/21/2017
    Date Modified: 10/25/2018
    Date Created: 20130101 to 20131231
    Rights: CC BY NC - Allows others to use and share your data non-commercially and with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S53B5X9S
  8. Pharmacokinetics of Locally Delivered Vancomycin to Bone

    Work
    Description: Current treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections require intravenously delivered vancomycin; however, systemically delivered vancomycin has its problems. To determine the feasibility and safety of locally delivering vancomycin hydrochloride (~25 mg/Kg) to the medullary canal of long bones, we conducted a pharmacokinetics study using a rat tibia model. We found that administering the vancomycin intraosseously resulted in very low concentrations of vancomycin in the blood plasma and the muscle surrounding the tibia, reducing the risk for systemic toxicity, which is often seen with traditional intravenous administration of vancomycin. Additionally, we were able to inhibit the development of osteomyelitis in the tibia if the treatment was administered locally at the same time as a bacterial inoculum (i.e., Log10 7.82 CFU/mL or 6.62x107 CFU/mL), when compared to an untreated group. These findings suggest that local intramedullary vancomycin delivery can achieve sufficiently high local concentrations to prevent development of osteomyelitis while minimizing systemic toxicity.
    Keyword: antibiotics, pharmacokinetics, bone, and infections
    Subject: Infectious Diseases
    Creator: Loc-Carrillo, Catherine
    Contributor: Burr, Michael, Wu, Sijia, Churchill, John, Wang, Caroline, Hoerger, Kelly, Canden, Ahranee, Agarwal, Jay, Fernandez, Sheena, and Fredricksen, Hunter
    Owner: Catherine Loc Carrillo
    Publisher: The Hive: University of Utah Data Repository
    Location: Salt Lake City, UT
    Language: English
    Date Uploaded: 08/17/2017
    Date Modified: 08/07/2018
    Date Created: 20130501 - 20150130
    Rights: CC BY NC - Allows others to use and share your data non-commercially and with attribution.
    Resource Type: Dataset
    Identifier: https://doi.org/10.7278/S5W0942B
    Contact Email: c.loc.carrillo@hsc.utah.edu
    Funders: University of Utah Research Foundation