We apply Bayesian inference to instrument calibration and experimental-data uncertainty analysis for the specific application of measuring radiative intensity with a narrow-angle radiometer. We develop a physics-based instrument model that describes temporally varying radiative intensity, the indirectly measured quantity of interest, as a function of scenario and model parameters. We identify a set of five uncertain parameters, find their probability distributions (the posterior or inverse problem) given the calibration data by applying Bayes’ Theorem, and employ a local linearization to marginalize the nuisance parameters resulting from errors-in-variables. We then apply the instrument model to a new scenario that is the intended use of the instrument, a 1.5 MW coal-fired furnace. Unlike standard error propagation, this Bayesian method infers values for the five uncertain parameters by sampling from the posterior distribution and then computing the intensity with quantifiable uncertainty at the point of a new, in-situ furnace measurement (the posterior predictive or forward problem). Given the instrument-model context of this analysis, the propagated uncertainty provides a significant proportion of the measurement error for each in-situ furnace measurement. With this approach, we produce uncertainties at each temporal measurement of the radiative intensity in the furnace, successfully identifying temporal variations that were otherwise indistinguishable from measurement uncertainty.
This file contains experimental data from the Ph.D. thesis “Mechanisms Governing Ash Aerosol Formation and Deposition during Solid Fuel Combustion” at the University of Utah. The data include particle sizes, weights, and compositions of ash aerosols and deposits formed in the combustion of a range of fossil and biomass solid fuels under a wide range of conditions. Operation pressure, fuel composition and combustor scale are changed across these tests. These experimental data can provide information and inputs for further studies, such as modeling the ash deposition process, in the future.
Research background: Concern about global warming has called for new combustion systems to be used in order to reduce CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation. Pressurized oxy-coal combustion coupled with carbon capture and storage as well as co-firing biomass with coal are gaining more interest in building new power plants and retrofitting existing plants. The combustion conditions of these systems could be significantly changed and thus affect the ash formation and deposition. The experimental work of this thesis consists of combustion tests at various scales and conditions, namely, on a 100 kWth rated oxy-fuel combustor (OFC), a 300 kWth rated entrained flow pressurized reactor (EFPR), a 1.5 MWth rated horizontal multifuel combustor (L1500) and a 500 MWe full-size utility boiler (Hunter). The solid fuels involved in these tests include pulverized coal, torrefied wood, blend fuels of the coal and wood, and coal with K/Cl/S additives. In each test, iso-kinetically sampled ash aerosols are analyzed in terms of particle size distributions and size-segregated compositions. Ash deposition rates are measured using a surface-temperature-controlled probe which simulates the deposition process on superheater tubes.
We discuss a new set of ~ 500 numerical n-body calculations designed to constrain the masses and bulk densities of Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Comparisons of different techniques for deriving the semimajor axis and eccentricity of the four satellites favor methods relying on the theory of Lee & Peale (2006), where satellite orbits are derived in the context of the restricted three body problem (Pluto, Charon, and one massless satellite). In each simulation, we adopt the nominal satellite masses derived in Kenyon & Bromley (2019b), multiply the mass of at least one satellite by a numerical factor f >= 1, and establish whether the system ejects at least one satellite on a time scale <= 4.5~Gyr. When the total system mass is large (f >> 1), ejections of Kerberos are more common. Systems with lower satellite masses (f ~ 1) usually eject Styx. In these calculations, Styx often signals an ejection by moving to higher orbital inclination long before ejection; Kerberos rarely signals in a useful way. The n-body results suggest that Styx and Kerberos are more likely to have bulk densities comparable with water ice, rho_SK <= 2 g/cm^3, than with rock. A strong upper limit on the total system mass, M_SNKH <= 9.5 x 10^19 g, also places robust constraints on the average bulk density of the four satellites, rho_SNKH <= 1.4 g/cm^3. These limits support models where the satellites grow out of icy material ejected during a major impact on Pluto or Charon.
This dataset contains the materials necessary to reproduce the study submitted to Remote Sensing: "Tradeoffs Between UAS Spatial Resolution and Accuracy for Deep Learning Semantic Segmentation Applied to Wetland Vegetation Species Mapping". This includes the raw imagery output from the camera aboard the unoccupied aerial vehicle, the Red-Edge MX, captured over the Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area, Utah, in August of 2020, resampled images, code to resample the images, a link to ground reference data, and the training and testing data used for the convolutional neural network in the study.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Ground Motion Amplification at Natural Rock Arches in the Colorado Plateau ," where we analyzed 13 sandstone arches in Utah, computing site-to-reference spectral amplitude ratios from continuous ambient seismic data and comparing these to spectral ratios during earthquakes and teleseismic activity. Included in this dataset are the arch vibration data.
-------------------------- METHODOLOGICAL INFORMATION --------------------------
1. Description of methods used for collection/generation of data: The data were generated by computer simulations using the C++ code "Orchestra", a proprietary hybrid code that follows the dynamical evolution of solids and gas orbiting a central object. Algorithms in the code are described in the following papers (author names abbreviated to B for Bromley, K for Kenyon, and L for Jane X Luu along with a year for publication date, AJ = Astronomical Journal, ApJ = Astrophysical Journal, S=Supplement): KL1998, AJ 115:2136; KL1999, AJ 118:1101; KB2001,AJ 121:538; KB2002,AJ 123:1757; KB2004, AJ 127:513; BK2006, AJ 131:2737; KB2006, AJ 131:1837; KB2008, ApJS 179:451; KB2010, ApJS 188:242; BK2011, ApJ 731:101; KB2012, AJ 143:63; KB2014, AJ 147:8. Initial conditions for these simulations described in the published paper.
2. Methods for processing the data: Various C and fortran programs are used to analyze the data for the calculations. Several C programs needed to extract information from the computer generated binary output files are included with the dataset. The C programs include basic summaries of the structure of the data files and the usage to extract data from each binary file.
3. Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret the data: Appropriate software is included in directory.
4. Standards and calibration information, if appropriate: none
5. Environmental/experimental conditions: all calculations were run on the NASA discover cluster
6. Describe any quality-assurance procedures performed on the data: Aside from tests summarized in the papers described in item 1, test calculations are summarized in the Appendix of each paper and compared to an appropriate benchmark.
7. People involved with sample collection, processing, analysis and/or submission: Scott Kenyon and Ben Bromley and --------------------- DATA & FILE OVERVIEW ---------------------
Files summarized in items 1-8 are binary output files from n-body simulations as described in Kenyon & Bromley, "A Pluto-Charon Sonata: Dynamical Limits on fate Masses of the Small Satellites" (2019, Astronomical Journal). Files described in item 9 are ascii txt. The C programs in items 10, 11, and 12 provide different ways to access the binary output. Each C program describes the architecture of the binary files.
1. pcs2-0mmm-nnn[a-z] files: heavy satellites, mmm = 100 x mass factor for all satellites, nnn = number of Symplectic steps per PC orbit, a-z = version
2. pcs2-1mmm-nnn[a-z] files: light satellites, mmm = 100 x mass factor for all satellites, nnn = number of Symplectic steps per PC orbit, a-z = version
3. pcs2-2mmm-nnn[a-z] files: light satellites with 2x nominal mass of Styx & Kerberos, mmm = 100 x mass factor for all satellites, nnn = number of Symplectic steps per PC orbit, a-z = version
4. pcs2-3mmm: heavy satellites, 40 Symplectic steps per PC orbit, mmm = 100 x mass factor for Nix only
5. pcs2-4mmm: heavy satellites, 40 Symplectic steps per PC orbit, mmm = 100 x mass factor for Kerberos only
6. pcs2-5mmm: heavy satellites, 40 Symplectic steps per PC orbit, mmm = 100 x mass factor for Hydra only
7. pcs2-6mmm light satellites, 40 Symplectic steps per PC orbit, mmm = 100 x mass factor for Nix only
8. pcs2-7mmm: light satellites, 40 Symplectic steps per PC orbit, mmm = 100 x mass factor for Hydra only
9. pcs2-n000.dat: summary of lifetimes for binary files in each archive 10. lifetime.c: summarizes lifetime and mass factor for binary file usage example: "lifetime pcs2-6110"
11. summary.c: generates basic summary of timesteps in a binary file usage example: "summary pcs1-0013d"
12. extrxyz.c: extracts (x,y,z) for N satellites and outputs (x,y,z) usage example: "extr6d pcs1-6110 6" will output (x,y,z) for SNKH 3. Additional related data collected that was not included in the current data package: There are other binary output files not included in this archive. 4. Are there multiple versions of the dataset? no
Micrometer-scale maps of authigenic microstructures in submarine basaltic tuff from a 1979 Surtsey volcano, Iceland, drill core acquired 15 years after eruptions terminated describe the initial alteration of oceanic basalt in a low temperature hydrothermal system. An integrative investigative approach uses synchrotron source X-ray microdiffraction (µXRD), microfluoresence (µXRF), micro-computed tomography (µCT), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) coupled with Raman spectroscopy to create finely resolved spatial frameworks that record a continuum of alteration in glass and olivine. Micro-analytical maps of vesicular and fractured lapilli in specimens from 157.1, 137.9, and 102.6 m depth, and borehole temperatures of 83, 93.9 and 141.3 °C measured in 1980, respectively, describe the production of nanocrystalline clay mineral, zeolites, and Al-tobermorite in diverse microenvironments. Irregular alteration fronts at 157.1 m depth resemble microchannels associated with biological activity in older basalts. By contrast, linear microstructures with little resemblance to previously described alteration features have nanocrystalline clay mineral (nontronite) and zeolite (amicite) texture. The crystallographic preferred orientation rotates around an axis parallel to the linear feature. Raman spectra indicating degraded and poorly-ordered carbonaceous matter of possible biological origin are associated with nanocrystalline clay mineral in a crystallographically-oriented linear microstructure in altered olivine at 102.6 m and with sub-circular nanoscale cavities in altered glass at 137.9 m depth. Although evidence for biotic processes is inconclusive, the integrated analyses describe the complex organization of previously unrecognized mineral texture in very young basalt. They provide a foundational mineralogical reference for longitudinal, time-lapse characterizations of palagonitized basalt in oceanic environments.
Detailed ground-based observations of snow are scarce in remote regions such as the Arctic. Here, Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) measurements of over 55,000 solid hydrometeors — obtained during a two-year period from August 2016 to August 2018 at Oliktok Point, Alaska — are analyzed and compared to similar measurements from an earlier experiment at Alta, Utah. In general, distributions of hydrometeor fall speed, fall orientation, aspect ratio, flatness, and complexity (i.e., riming degree) were observed to be very similar between the two locations, except that Arctic hydrometeors tended to be smaller. In total, the slope parameter defining a negative exponential of the size distribution was approximately 50% steeper in the Arctic as at Alta. 66% of particles were observed to be rimed or moderately rimed, with some suggestion that riming is favored by weak boundary layer stability. On average, the fall speed of rimed particles was not notably different from aggregates. However, graupel density and fall speed increase as cloud temperatures approach the melting point.
The goal of the study was to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates cytomegalovirus (CMV)–induced labyrinthitis.
Murine model of CMV infection.
Subjects and Methods
Nrf2 knockout mice were inoculated with murine CMV. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were then performed on these and uninfected controls. BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine CMV to determine whether a marker for ROS production, dihydroethidium (DHE), is expressed 7 days after inoculation. Finally, 2 antioxidants—D-methionine and ACE-Mg (vitamins A, C, and E with magnesium)—were administered 1 hour before and after infection in inoculated mice for 14 days. Temporal bones were harvested at postnatal day 10 for DHE detection. ABR and DPOAE testing was done at postnatal day 30. Scanning electron microscopy was also performed at postnatal day 30 to evaluate outer hair cell integrity.
Nrf2-infected mice had worse hearing than uninfected mice (P < .001). A statistically significant increase in DHE fluorescence was detected in BALB/c-infected mice as compared with uninfected mice 7 days after inoculation. D-methionine- and ACE-Mg-treated mice demonstrated an attenuation of the DHE fluorescence and a significant improvement in ABR and DPOAE thresholds when compared with untreated infected controls (P < .0001). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated less outer hair cell loss in the treated versus untreated infected controls.
These results demonstrate for the first time that excessive ROS mediates CMV-induced hearing loss in a mouse model. and The data set includes individual images of mouse cochleae, both scanning electron micrographs and fluorescent micrographs, used to generate aggregated data described in Pecha PP, Almishaal AA, Mathur PD, et al. Role of Free Radical Formation in Murine Cytomegalovirus–Induced Hearing Loss. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 2020;162(5):709-717. doi:10.1177/0194599820901485
Light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) is an established optical approach for nondestructive characterization of biological tissues. Here, we investigated the capabilities of LSS and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to quantitatively characterize the composition and arrangement of cardiac tissues. We assembled tissue constructs from 200 μm thick sections of fixed myocardium and aortic wall. Thickness of the tissue constructs was similar to the thickness of atrial free wall. In the assembled constructs, the aortic sections represented fibrotic tissue and the depth, volume fraction, and arrangement of these fibrotic insets were varied. We gathered spectra with wavelengths from 500-1100 nm from the constructs at multiple locations relative to a light source. We used single and combinations of two spectra for training of CNNs. With independently measured spectra, we assessed the accuracy of the trained CNNs for classification of tissue constructs from single spectra and combined spectra. In general, classification accuracy with single spectra was smaller than with combined spectra. Combined spectra including spectra from fibers distal from the illumination fiber typically yielded a higher accuracy than proximal single collection fibers. Maximal classification accuracy of depth detection, volume fraction and permutated arrangements was (mean±stddev) 88.97±2.49%, 76.33±1.51% and 84.25±1.88%, respectively. Our studies demonstrate the reliability of quantitative characterization of tissue composition and arrangements using a combination of LSS and CNNs. Potential clinical applications of the developed approach include intraoperative quantification and mapping of atrial fibrosis as well as assessment of ablation lesions.
Current treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections require intravenously delivered vancomycin; however, systemically delivered vancomycin has its problems. To determine the feasibility and safety of locally delivering vancomycin hydrochloride (~25 mg/Kg) to the medullary canal of long bones, we conducted a pharmacokinetics study using a rat tibia model. We found that administering the vancomycin intraosseously resulted in very low concentrations of vancomycin in the blood plasma and the muscle surrounding the tibia, reducing the risk for systemic toxicity, which is often seen with traditional intravenous administration of vancomycin. Additionally, we were able to inhibit the development of osteomyelitis in the tibia if the treatment was administered locally at the same time as a bacterial inoculum (i.e., Log10 7.82 CFU/mL or 6.62x107 CFU/mL), when compared to an untreated group. These findings suggest that local intramedullary vancomycin delivery can achieve sufficiently high local concentrations to prevent development of osteomyelitis while minimizing systemic toxicity.
Background: To assess the demographic and attitudinal factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 18–26 year old women in Utah. Method: Between January 2013 and December 2013, we surveyed 325 women from the University of Utah Community Clinics about their HPV vaccine related beliefs and behaviors. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from logistic regression models to identify variables related to HPV vaccine initiation and series completion. Results: Of the 325 participants, 204 (62.8 %) had initiated the vaccine and 159 (48.9 %) had completed the 3-dose series. The variables associated with HPV vaccine initiation were lower age (OR = 1.18 per year); being unmarried (OR = 3.62); not practicing organized religion (OR = 2.40); knowing how HPV spreads (OR = 6.29); knowing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer (OR = 3.90); a belief in the importance of preventive vaccination (OR = 2.45 per scale unit); strength of doctor recommendation (OR = 1.86 per scale unit); and whether a doctor’s recommendation was influential (OR = 1.70 per scale unit). These variables were also significantly associated with HPV vaccine completion. Conclusion: The implications of these findings may help inform policies and interventions focused on increasing HPV vaccination rates among young women. For example, without this information, programs might focus on HPV awareness; however, the results of this study illustrate that awareness is already high (near saturation) in target populations and other factors, such as strong and consistent physician recommendations, are more pivotal in increasing likelihood of vaccination. Additionally, our findings indicate the need for discussions of risk assessment be tailored to the young adult population.
This dataset includes a 3-D model of the Courthouse Mesa toppling rock slab instability in Utah. These data were used in conjunction with ambient seismic array data to conduct modal analyses and improve the structural characterization of the rock slope instability. Data include a 3-D model of the rock slope instability (.stl) and a COMSOL Multiphysics project file showing the boundary conditions and solutions of the best model run (.mph). This dataset accompanies the research article entitled "Rock slope instability structural characterization using array-based modal analysis."
Subglacial water pressures influence groundwater conditions in proximal alpine valley rock slopes, varying with glacier advance and retreat in parallel with changing ice thickness. Fluctuating groundwater pressures in turn increase or reduce effective joint normal stresses, affecting the yield strength of discontinuities. Here we extend simplified assumptions of glacial debuttressing to investigate how glacier loading cycles together with changing groundwater pressures generate rock slope damage and prepare future slope instabilities. Using hydromechanical coupled numerical models closely based on the Aletsch Glacier valley in Switzerland, we simulate Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier loading cycles including long-term and annual groundwater fluctuations. Measurements of transient subglacial water pressures from ice boreholes in the Aletsch Glacier ablation area, as well as continuous monitoring of bedrock deformation from permanent GNSS stations helps verify our model assumptions. While purely mechanical glacier loading cycles create only limited rock slope damage in our models, introducing a fluctuating groundwater table generates substantial new fracturing. Superposed annual groundwater cycles increase predicted damage. The cumulative effects are capable of destabilizing the eastern valley flank of our model in toppling-mode failure, similar to field observations of active landslide geometry and kinematics. We find that hydromechanical fatigue is most effective acting in combination with long-term loading and unloading of the slope during glacial cycles. Our results demonstrate that hydromechanical stresses associated with glacial cycles are capable of generating substantial rock slope damage and represent a key preparatory factor for paraglacial slope instabilities.
Future projections suggest an increase in drought globally with climate change. Current vegetation models typically regulate the plant photosynthetic response to soil moisture stress through an empirical function, rather than a mechanistic response where plant water potentials respond to changes in soil water. This representation of soil moisture stress may introduce significant uncertainty into projections for the terrestrial carbon cycle. We examined the use of the soil moisture limitation function in historical and future emissions scenarios in nine Earth system models. We found that soil moisture-limited productivity across models represented a large and uncertain component of the simulated carbon cycle, comparable to 3-286% of current global productivity. Approximately 40-80% of the intermodel variability was due to the functional form of the limitation equation alone. Our results highlight the importance of implementing mechanistic water limitation schemes in models and illuminate several avenues for improving projections of the land carbon sink.
: Forests play a major role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies on the capacity of forests to sequester atmospheric CO2 have mostly focused on carbon uptake, but the roles of carbon turnover time and its spatiotemporal changes remain poorly understood. Here, we used long-term inventory data (1955-2018) from 695 mature forest plots to quantify temporal trends in living vegetation carbon turnover time across tropical, temperate, and cold climate zones, and compared plot data to eight Earth system models (ESMs). Long-term plots consistently showed decreases in living vegetation carbon turnover time, likely driven by increased tree mortality across all major climate zones. Changes in living vegetation carbon turnover time were negatively correlated with CO2 enrichment in both forest plot data and ESM simulations. However, plot-based correlations between living vegetation carbon turnover time and climate drivers such as precipitation and temperature diverged from those of ESM simulations. Our analyses suggest that forest carbon sinks are likely to be constrained by a decrease in living vegetation carbon turnover time, and accurate projections of forest carbon sink dynamics will require an improved representation of tree mortality processes and their sensitivity to climate in ESMs.
Localization of the components of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) is essential for many therapeutic procedures in cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. While histological studies provided fundamental insights into CCS localization, this information is incomplete and difficult to translate to aid in intraprocedural localization. To advance our understanding of CCS localization, we set out to establish a framework for quantifying nodal region morphology. Using this framework, we quantitatively analyzed the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN) in ovine with menstrual age ranging from 4.4 to 58.3 months. In particular, we studied the SAN and AVN in relation to the epicardial and endocardial surfaces, respectively. Using anatomical landmarks, we excised the nodes and adjacent tissues, sectioned those at a thickness of 4 µm at 100 µm intervals, and applied Masson’s trichrome stain to the sections. These sections were then imaged, segmented to identify nodal tissue, and analyzed to quantify nodal depth and superficial tissue composition. The minimal SAN depth ranged between 20 and 926 µm. AVN minimal depth ranged between 59 and 1192 µm in the AVN extension region, 49 and 980 µm for the compact node, and 148 and 888 µm for the transition to His Bundle region. Using a logarithmic regression model, we found that minimal depth increased logarithmically with age for the AVN (R2=0.818, P=0.002). Also, the myocardial overlay of the AVN was heterogeneous within different regions and decreased with increasing age. Age associated alterations of SAN minimal depth were insignificant. Our study presents examples of characteristic tissue patterns superficial to the AVN and within the SAN. We suggest that the presented framework provides quantitative information for CCS localization. Our studies indicate that procedural methods and localization approaches in regions near the AVN should account for the age of patients in cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology.
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of utilising larger lens cubes on phacoemulsification efficiency and chatter using 3 tips of different sizes and 2 ultrasound (US) approaches.
Methods: This was an in vitro laboratory study conducted at the John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratory, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Porcine lens nuclei were formalin-soaked for 2 hours, then divided into either 2.0 mm or 3.0 mm cubes. 30 degree bent 19 G, 20 G, and 21 G tips were used with a continuous torsional US system; and straight 19 G, 20 G, and 21 G tips were used with a micropulse longitudinal US system. Efficiency and chatter were determined.
Results: Mean phacoemulsification removal time was higher with the 3.0 mm lens cube for all US variations and tip sizes. There were statistically significant differences between the 19 G and 21 G tips with micropulse longitudinal US using the 2.0 mm lens cube and the 3.0 mm lens cube, as well as with continuous transversal US using the 2.0 mm lens cube and the 3.0 mm lens cube. There was no significant difference between 19 G and 20 G tips with either lens cube size in either US approach. However, using both US approaches, trends were identical for both lens cube sizes in which the 19 G tips performed better than the 20 G and 21 G tips.
Conclusion: Regardless of lens size, the 19 G needle was the most efficient, with the fewest outliers and smallest standard deviations.
This project was a NSF-funded collaborative research project entitled: Collaborative Research: Deciphering Eolian Paleoenvironmental and Hydrodynamic records: Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, Colorado Plateau, USA This was a multifaceted interdisciplinary study of the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone (Ss)--a unique and distinctive unit in all of geologic history. This unit represents the largest known ancient desert (erg), and is typically classified as a record of a hyperarid environment. Furthermore, the Navajo Ss was deposited at a time when mammals were undergoing their first major diversification, and dinosaurs began to dominate the landscape in number and diversity. Our goal was to examine sedimentary features of the erg margin that recorded the active paleohydrology of the desert regime, and examine abundant trace- and body-fossil material to more fully document the structure and evolution of the biota in a variably arid landscape through Navajo Ss deposition. Field studies involved sedimentology and paleoecology. Laboratory studies involved isotope geochemistry of carbonate deposits, as well as thin section petrography.
This dataset contains the electric field data sampled along ocean-continent boundaries during space weather hazards. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is used to study potential space weather hazards to electric power grids located at the proximity of the coast. The most of the data are in floating point representation, and the data files are in .txt format. The data can be visualized using software such as MATLAB and Python. The data can be used to plot electric and magnetic fields along the ocean-continent boundaries for different scenarios (different depths of an ocean, different conductivities of a lithosphere and different frequencies of ionospheric disturbance).
The widely documented phenomenon of nighttime stomatal conductance (gsn) could lead to substantial water loss with no carbon gain, and thus it remains unclear whether nighttime stomatal conductance confers a functional advantage. Given that studies of gsn have focused on controlled environments or small numbers of species in natural environments, a broad phylogenetic and biogeographic context could provide insights into potential adaptive benefits of gsn. • We measured gsn on a diverse suite of species (n = 73) across various functional groups and climates-of-origin in a common garden to study the phylogenetic and biogeographic/climatic controls on gsn and further assessed the degree to which gsn co-varied with leaf functional traits and daytime gas exchange rates. • Closely related species were more similar in gsn than expected by chance. Herbaceous species had higher gsn than woody species. Species that typically grow in climates with lower mean annual precipitation – where the fitness cost of water loss should be the highest – generally had higher gsn. • Our results reveal the highest gsn rates in species from environments where neighboring plants compete most strongly for water, suggesting a possible role for the competitive advantage of gsn.
The dynamic properties of freestanding rock landforms are a function of fundamental material and mechanical parameters, facilitating non-invasive vibration-based structural assessment. Characterization of resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios, however, can be challenging at culturally-sensitive geologic features, such as rock arches, where physical access is limited. Using sparse ambient vibration measurements, we describe three resonant modes between 1 and 40 Hz for 17 natural arches in Utah spanning a range of lengths from 3 – 88 m. Modal polarization data are evaluated to combine field observations with 3-D numerical models. We find outcrop-scale elastic moduli vary from 0.8 to 8.0 GPa, correlated with diagenetic processes, and identify low damping at all sites. Dense-array cross-correlation results from an additional arch validate predictions of simple bending modes and fixed boundary conditions. Our results establish use of sparse ambient resonance measurements for structural assessment and monitoring of arches and similar freestanding geologic features.
The Andes Cordillera, which runs the length of South America and rises up to 5,000 m MSL within 200 km of the Pacific coast, dramatically influences the distribution of winter precipitation and snowpack over Chile and Argentina. The study of orographic precipitation processes, particularly along the western slopes of the Andes, is important to improve forecasts of severe flooding and snowpack in a region that depends on snowmelt for water resources. While orographic effects have been investigated on synoptic scales in the Andes, the lack of operational radar coverage and high-elevation, long-term precipitation records have, before the present study, precluded an in-depth investigation into the mesoscale and microphysical processes that affect the distribution of precipitation in the region.
This dataset was collected during the Chilean Orographic and Mesoscale Precipitation Study (ChOMPS), which, from May-October 2016, investigated the evolution of precipitation amounts, dropsize distribution, and the vertical profile of radar echoes along an east-west transect that stretched from the Pacific coast to the windward slope of the Andes. The transect, at ~36°S, was made up of a coastal site upstream of the coastal mountain range (Concepción), a central valley site (Chillán), and a mountain site (Las Trancas). Instrumentation along the transect included three vertically pointing Micro-Rain-Radars, two Parsivel Disdrometers, and several meteorological stations.
The dataset documents the evolution of Doppler velocity and reflectivity profiles with inland extent during early, middle, and late storm sectors. Additionally, the transect provides a season-long record of the inland evolution of melting layer height as well as the prevalence and structure of shallow non-brightband rain and the characteristics of its inland penetration to the central valley. This dataset, the first of its kind in the Chilean Andes, provides unique insight into mesoscale and orographic precipitation processes that also have applicability to the west coast of the United States and other mountainous regions.
The mechanisms governing tree drought mortality and recovery remain a subject of inquiry and active debate given their role in the terrestrial carbon cycle and their concomitant impact on climate change. Counter-intuitively, many trees do not die during the drought itself. Indeed, observations globally have documented that trees often grow for several years after drought before mortality. A combination of meta-analysis and tree physiological models demonstrate that optimal carbon allocation after drought explains observed patterns of delayed tree mortality and provides a predictive recovery framework. Specifically, post-drought, trees attempt to repair water transport tissue and achieve positive carbon balance through regrowing drought-damaged xylem. Further, the number of years of xylem regrowth required to recover function increases with tree size, explaining why drought mortality increases with size. These results indicate that tree resilience to drought-kill may increase in the future, provided that CO2 fertilization facilitates more rapid xylem regrowth.
This SAS program can be used to calculate Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI-2016) total and component scores from food purchase data (dollars and cents) that have been summarized into the 29 categories of the USDA Food Plans. The code can be adapted to calculate GPQI-2016 scores for data that use a smaller number of categories.
Background. Common cold viruses create significant health and financial burdens, and understanding key loci of transmission would help focus control strategies. This study (1) examines factors that influence when individuals transition from a negative to positive test (acquisition) or a positive to negative test (loss) of rhinovirus (HRV) and other respiratory tract viruses in 26 households followed weekly for one year, (2) investigates evidence for intrahousehold and interhousehold transmission and the characteristics of individuals implicated in transmission, and (3) builds data-based simulation models to identify factors that most strongly affect patterns of prevalence. Methods. We detected HRV, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, influenza and bocavirus with the FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC). We used logistic regression to find covariates affecting acquisition or loss of HRV including demographic characteristics of individuals, their household, their current infection status, and prevalence within their household and across the population. We apply generalized linear mixed models to test robustness of results. Results. Acquisition of HRV was less probable in older individuals and those infected with a coronavirus, and higher with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Loss of HRV is reduced with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Within households, only children and symptomatic individuals show evidence for transmission, while between households only a higher number of infected older children (ages 5-19) increases the probability of acquisition. Coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and bocavirus also show evidence of intrahousehold transmission. Simulations show that age-dependent susceptibility and transmission have the largest effects on mean HRV prevalence. Conclusions. Children are most likely to acquire and most likely to transmit HRV both within and between households, with infectiousness concentrated in symptomatic children. Simulations predict that the spread of HRV and other respiratory tract viruses can be reduced but not eliminated by practices within the home.
This dataset represents the de-identified raw results of a 16-question, online survey (via REDCap) collected in August 2019 to 224 public library staff who were sponsored for a Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sponsorship program had an impact on public library staff to provide consumer health information. and Objective: In 2018, the Network of the National Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) launched a national sponsorship program to support U.S. public library staff in completing the Medical Library Association’s (MLA) Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The primary objective of this research project was to determine if completion of the sponsored specialization was successful in improving public library staff ability to provide consumer health information and whether it resulted in new services, programming, or outreach activities at public libraries. Secondary objectives of this research were to determine motivation for and benefits of the specialization and to determine the impact on sponsorship on obtaining and continuing the specialization.
Methods: To evaluate the sponsorship program, we developed and administered a 16-question online survey via REDCap in August 2019 to 224 public library staff that were sponsored during the first year of the program. We measured confidence and competence in providing consumer health information using questions aligned with the eight Core Competencies for Providing Consumer Health Information Services . Additionally, the survey included questions about new consumer health information activities at public libraries, public library staff motivation to obtain the specialization, and whether it led to immediate career gains. To determine the overall value of the NNLM sponsorship, we measured whether funding made it more likely for participants to complete or continue the specialization.
Results: Overall, 136 participants (61%) responded to the survey. Our findings indicated that the program was a success: over 80% of participants reported an increase in core consumer health competencies, with a statistically significant improvement in mean competency scores after completing the specialization. Ninety percent of participants have continued their engagement with NNLM, and over half offered new health information programs and services at their public library. All respondents indicated that completing the specialization met their expectations, but few reported immediate career gains. While over half of participants planned to renew the specialization or obtain the more advanced, Level II specialization, 72% indicated they would not continue without the NNLM sponsorship.
Conclusion: Findings indicate that NNLM sponsorship of the CHIS specialization was successful in increasing the ability of public library staff to provide health information to their community.
Using a suite of numerical calculations, we consider the long-term evolution of
circumbinary debris from the Pluto--Charon giant impact. Initially, these solids
have large eccentricity and pericenters near Charon's orbit. On time scales of
100--1000 yr, dynamical interactions with Pluto and Charon lead to the ejection
of most solids from the system. As the dynamics moves particles away from the
barycenter, collisional damping reduces the orbital eccentricity of many particles.
These solids populate a circumbinary disk in the Pluto-Charon orbital plane; a large
fraction of this material lies within a `satellite zone' that encompasses the orbits
of Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Compared to the narrow rings generated from the
debris of a collision between a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and Charon,
disks produced after the giant impact are much more extended and may be a less promising option for producing small circumbinary satellites.
We analyzed 4,754 broadband seismic recordings of the SKS, SKKS, and SPdKS wavefield from 13 high quality events sampling the Samoa ultralow-velocity zone (ULVZ). We measured differential travel-times and amplitudes between the SKKS and SKS arrivals, which are highly sensitive to the emergence of the SPdKS seismic phase, which is in turn highly sensitive to lowermost mantle velocity perturbations such as generated by ULVZs. We modeled these data using a 2-D axi-symmetric waveform modeling approach and are able to explain these data with a single ULVZ. In order to predict both travel-time and amplitude perturbations we found that a large ULVZ length in the great circle arc direction on the order of 10° or larger is required. The large ULVZ length limits acceptable ULVZ elastic parameters. Here we find that δVS and δVP reductions from 20% to 22% and 15% to 17% respectively gives us the best fit, with a thickness of 26 km. Initial 3-D modeling efforts do not recover the extremes in the differential measurements, demonstrating that 3-D effects are important and must be considered in the future. However, the 3-D modeling is generally consistent with the velocity reductions recovered with the 2-D modeling. These velocity reductions are compatible with a compositional component to the ULVZ. Furthermore, geodynamic predictions for a compositional ULVZ that is moving predict a long linear shape similar to the shape of the Samoa ULVZ we confirm in this study.
and This collection includes radial component displacement seismograms in the time window including the SKS, SKKS and SPdKS seismic arrivals. These data all interact with the Samoa ultra-low velocity zone at the core-mantle boundary. All data used in the study of Krier et al., 2021 (JGR) is included in this collection.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Vibration of Natural Rock Arches and Towers Excited by Helicopter-Sourced Infrasound," where we investigate the vibration response of seven landforms to helicopter-sourced infrasound during controlled flight. Included are time-series vibration data of the landforms and nearby ground during and before helicopter flight, time-series infrasound data, 3D photogrammetry models of the studied landforms, and GPS data from the helicopter.
Significance: Current medical imaging systems have many limitations for applications in cardiovascular diseases. New technologies may overcome these limitations. Particularly interesting are technologies for diagnosis of cardiac diseases, e.g. fibrosis, myocarditis, and transplant rejection.
Aim: To introduce and assess a new optical system capable of assessing cardiac muscle tissue using light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) in conjunction with machine learning.
Approach: We applied an ovine model to investigate if the new LSS system is capable of estimating densities of cell nuclei in cardiac tissue. We measured the nuclear density using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and image processing. Spectra acquired from the same cardiac tissues were analyzed with spectral clustering and convolutional neural networks to assess feasibility and reliability of density quantification.
Results: Spectral clustering revealed distinct groups of spectra correlated to ranges of nuclear density. Convolutional neural networks correctly classified 3 groups of spectra with low, medium, or high nuclear density with 95.00±11.77% (mean and standard deviation) accuracy. The analysis revealed sensitivity of the accuracy to wavelength range and subsampling of spectra.
Conclusions: LSS and machine learning are capable of assessing nuclear density in cardiac tissues. The approach could be useful for diagnosis of cardiac diseases associated with an increase of nuclei.
Environmental noise may affect hearing and a variety of non-auditory disease processes. There is some evidence that, like other environmental hazards, noise may be differentially distributed across communities based on socioeconomic status. We aimed to a) predict daytime noise pollution levels and b) assess disparities in daytime noise exposure in Chicago, Illinois. We measured 5-minute daytime noise levels (Leq, 5-min) at 75 randomly selected sites in Chicago in March, 2019. Geographically-based variables thought to be associated with noise were obtained, and used to fit a noise land-use regression model to estimate the daytime environmental noise level at the centroid of the census blocks. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from the City of Chicago for the 77 community areas, and associations with daytime noise levels were assessed using spatial autoregressive models. Mean sampled noise level (Leq, 5-min) was 60.6 dBA. The adjusted R2 and root mean square error of the noise land use regression model and the validation model were 0.60 and 4.67 dBA and 0.51 and 5.90 dBA, respectively. Nearly 75% of city blocks and 85% of city communities have predicted daytime noise level higher than 55 dBA. Of the socioeconomic variables explored, only community per capita income was associated with mean community predicted noise levels, and was highest for communities with incomes in the 2nd quartile. Both the noise measurements and land-use regression modeling demonstrate that Chicago has levels of environmental noise likely contributing to the total burden of environmental stressors. Noise is not uniformly distributed across Chicago; it is associated with proximity to roads and public transportation, and is higher among communities with mid-to-low incomes per capita, which highlights how socially and economically disadvantaged communities may be disproportionately impacted by this environmental exposure.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of face shields on the concentration of respirable aerosols in the breathing zone of the wearer. The experimental approach involved the generation of poly-dispersed respirable test dust aerosol in a low-speed wind tunnel over 15 minutes, with a downstream breathing mannequin. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the breathing zone of the mannequin and at an upstream location using two laser spectrophotometers that measured particle number concentration over the range 0.25-31 µm. Three face shield designs were tested (A, B and C), and were positioned on the mannequin operated at a high and low breathing rate. Efficiency – the reduction in aerosol concentration in the breathing zone – was calculated as a function of particle size and overall, for each face shield. Face shield A, a bucket hat with flexible shield, had the highest efficiency, approximately 95%, while more traditional face shield designs had efficiency 53-78%, depending on face shield and breathing rate. Efficiency varied by particle size, but the pattern differed among face shield designs. Face shields decreased the concentration of respirable aerosols in the breathing zone, when aerosols were carried perpendicular to the face. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of face shield position relative to the source.
Classification of barrier island morphology stems from the seminal work of M. O. Hayes and others, which linked island shape to tidal range and wave height and defined coastal energy regimes (i.e., wave-dominated, mixed energy, tide-dominated). If true, this general relationship represents a process-based framework to link modern and ancient systems, and is key for determining paleomorphodynamic relationships. Here we present a new semi-global database of barrier islands and spits (n = 702). Shape parameters (aspect, circularity, and roundness) are used to quantify island boundary shape, and assess potential correlation with coastal energy regime using global wave and tide models. In adopting the original energy classification as originally put forth (i.e., wave dominated, wave-influenced mixed, tide-influenced mixed, tide dominated), results show that wave-dominated islands have statistically different mean shape values from those in the mixed energy fields, but the two mixed energy designations are not distinct from each other. Furthermore, each energy regime field contains a wide range of island shapes, with no clear trends present. Linear regression modeling shows that tidal range and wave height account for < 10% of the documented variance in island shape, a strong indication that other controls must be considered. Therefore, while energy regime distinctions can be used descriptively, their utility in predicting and constraining island shape is limited: barrier island shape is not indicative of coastal energy regime, and vice versa. Our analysis also demonstrates empirical scaling relationships among modern barrier islands for the first time, with implications for subsurface prediction. and This is the dataset of the Modern Barrier Island Database published in Mulhern et al., 2017 Marine Geology paper titled "Is Barrier Island Morphology a Function of Wave and Tide Regime?" with the DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2017.02.016. If using this dataset please cite both the dataset and the paper.
The similar orbital distances and incidence rates of debris disks and the prominent rings observed in protoplanetary disks suggest a potential connection between these structures. We explore this connection with new calculations that follow the evolution of rings of pebbles and planetesimals as they grow into planets and generate dusty debris. Depending on the initial solid mass and planetesimal formation efficiency, the calculations predict diverse outcomes for the resulting planet masses and accompanying debris signature. When compared with debris disk incidence rates as a function of luminosity and time, the model results indicate that the known population of bright cold debris disks can be explained by rings of solids with the (high) initial masses inferred for protoplanetary disk rings and modest planetesimal formation efficiencies that are consistent with current theories of planetesimal formation. These results support the possibility that large protoplanetary disk rings evolve into the known cold debris disks. The inferred strong evolutionary connection between protoplanetary disks with large rings and mature stars with cold debris disks implies that the remaining majority population of low-mass stars with compact protoplanetary disks leave behind only modest masses of residual solids at large radii and evolve primarily into mature stars without detectable debris beyond 30 au. The approach outlined here illustrates how combining observations with detailed evolutionary models of solids strongly constrains the global evolution of disk solids and underlying physical parameters such as the efficiency of planetesimal formation and the possible existence of invisible reservoirs of solids in protoplanetary disks.
This dataset encompasses the valid, completed, and qualitative data collected during the 2021 “Survey of Anime Convention Attendance in Response to Covid-19.” This survey was distributed online through social media platforms, community spaces, and industry listservs/resources in order to reach organizers, attendees, and fans of anime conventions (i.e., “cons”). The survey was intended to discover how those who attend anime conventions (i.e., "con-goers") have been experiencing changes in the anime convention scene during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in 2020-2021. Traditionally, anime cons and con-related activities such as cosplay (dressing up as a favorite character) are held in person. However, in 2020-2021, most cons have been cancelled or moved online; this is the first time in over 40 years, in the US and worldwide, that the anime convention scene has been so quiet. With this survey, investigators sought to capture firsthand impressions of this unprecedented moment, learning how con-goers were experiencing these changes and whether they had safety or other concerns about anime cons returning in late 2021 and early 2022.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Ambient vibration modal analysis of natural rock towers and fins," where we investigate the ambient vibrations of 14 rock rowers and perform modal analysis on 3D models of the landforms. Included are the vibration data and 3D models.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Etiology-Specific Remodeling in Ventricular Tissue of Heart Failure Patients and its Implications for Computational Modeling of Electrical Conduction," where we quantified fibrosis and performed electrophysiological simulation to investigate electrical propagation in etiologically varied heart failure tissue samples. Included are raw confocal microscopic images, data for extracting and processing the raw images and script to analyze fibrosis and generate meshes for simulation.
A new precipitation sensor, the Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID), is used to provide the first continuous measurements of the mass, diameter, and density of individual hydrometeors. The DEID consists of an infrared camera pointed at a heated aluminum plate. It exploits the contrasting thermal emissivity of water and metal to determine individual particle mass by assuming that energy is conserved during the transfer of heat from the plate to the particle during evaporation. Particle density is determined from a combination of particle mass and morphology. A Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) was deployed alongside the DEID to provide refined imagery of particle size and shape. Broad consistency is found between derived mass-diameter and density-diameter relationships and those obtained in prior studies. However, DEID measurements show a generally weaker dependence with size for hydrometeor density and a stronger dependence for aggregate snowflake mass. and The Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID) is a new evaporation-based optical and thermal instrument designed to measure the mass, size, density, and type of individual hydrometeors and their bulk properties. Hydrometeor spatial dimensions are measured on a heated metal plate using an infrared camera by exploiting the much higher thermal emissivity of water compared with metal. As a melted hydrometeor evaporates, its mass can be directly related to the loss of heat from the hotplate assuming energy conservation across the hydrometeor. The heat-loss required to evaporate a hydrometeor is found to be independent of environmental conditions including ambient wind velocity, moisture level, and temperature. The difference in heat loss for snow versus rain for a given mass offers a method for discriminating precipitation phase. The DEID measures hydrometeors at sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz with masses and effective diameters greater than 1 µg and 200 µm, respectively, determined by the size of the hotplate and the thermal camera specifications. Measurable snow water equivalent (SWE) precipitation rates range from 0.001 to 200 mm h−1, as validated against a standard weighing bucket. Preliminary field-experiment measurements of snow and rain from the winters of 2019 and 2020 provided continuous automated measurements of precipitation rate, snow density, and visibility. Measured hydrometeor size distributions agree well with canonical results described in the literature.
This dataset comprises MODTRAN radiative transfer simulations used to determine scene-specific enhancement spectra for matched filter retrieval of CH4 and CO2 concentrations from imaging spectroscopy data. An example implementation to generate a enhancement spectrum is also included.
This study of the role and impact of the subject selector in academic libraries is unique and long overdue. We focused on the Pac-12 university libraries, a representative sample of nationwide academic libraries. The strength of our investigation is this small, focused sample size and unique statistical analysis of subject specialists. There is a wide variety among these libraries with respect to the hiring requirements for MLIS, the MLIS with an additional advanced-subject master’s degree, and those libraries who hire non-MLIS librarians. This investigation has the possibility of promoting greater awareness for the future of subject specialists in academic libraries.
Weather-related research often requires synthesizing vast amounts of data that need archival solutions that are both economical and viable during and past the lifetime of the project. Public cloud computing services (e.g., from Amazon, Microsoft, or Google) or private clouds managed by research institutions are providing object data storage systems appropriate for long-term archives of such large geophysical data sets. ,
This effort began in 2015 to illustrate the use of a private cloud object store developed by the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) at the University of Utah. We began archiving thousands of two-dimensional gridded fields (each one containing over 1.9 million values over the contiguous United States) from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) data assimilation and forecast modeling system. The archive has been used for retrospective analyses of meteorological conditions during high-impact weather events, assessing the accuracy of the HRRR forecasts, and providing initial and boundary conditions for research simulations. The archive has been accessible interactively and through automated download procedures for researchers at other institutions that can be tailored by the user to extract individual two-dimensional grids from within the highly compressed files. Over a thousand users have voluntarily registered to use the HRRR archive at the University of Utah.
Our archive has grown to over 130 Tbytes of model output but we no longer need to continue that effort since the GRIB2 files are available now via Google and AWS. As mentioned above, we now provide much of the same information in an alternative format that is appropriate particularly for machine-learning applications.
, and Current Status:
Our research group no longer needs to maintain archives of High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model output at the University of Utah since complete publicly-accessible archives of HRRR model output are now available from the Google Cloud Platform and Amazon Web Services (AWS) as part of the NOAA Open Data Program.
Google and AWS store the HRRR model output in GRIB2 format, a file type that efficiently stores hundreds of two-dimensional variable fields for a single valid time. Despite the highly compressible nature of GRIB2 files, they are often on the order of several hundred MB each, making high-volume input/output applications challenging due to the memory and compute resources needed to parse these files.
With support from the Amazon Sustainability Data Initiative, our group is now creating and maintaining HRRR model output in an optimized format, Zarr, in a publicly-accessible S3 bucket- hrrrzarr. HRRR-Zarr contains sets for each model run of analysis and forecast files sectioned into 96 small chunks for every variable. The structure of the HRRR-Zarr files are designed to allow users the flexibility to access only the data they need through selecting subdomains and parameters of interest without the overhead that comes from accessing numerous GRIB2 files.
Ground-based measurements of frozen precipitation are heavily influenced by interactions of surface winds with gauge-shield geometry. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC), which photographs hydrometeors in free-fall from three different angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed, has been used in the field at multiple mid-latitude and polar locations both with and without wind shielding. Here we present an analysis of Arctic field observations — with and without a Belfort double Alter shield — and compare the results to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the airflow and corresponding particle trajectories around the unshielded MASC. MASC-measured fall speeds compare well with Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Zenith Radar (KAZR) mean Doppler velocities only when winds are light (< 5 m/s) and the MASC is shielded. MASC-measured fall speeds that do not match KAZR measured velocities tend to fall below a threshold value that increases approximately linearly with wind speed but is generally < 0.5 m/s. For those events with wind speeds < 1.5 m/s, hydrometeors fall with an orientation angle mode of 12 degrees from the horizontal plane, and large, low-density aggregates are as much as five times more likely to be observed. Simulations in the absence of a wind shield show a separation of flow at the upstream side of the instrument, with an upward velocity component just above the aperture, which decreases the mean particle fall speed by 55% (74%) for a wind speed of 5 m/s (10 m/s). We conclude that accurate MASC observations of the microphysical, orientation, and fall speed characteristics of snow particles require shielding by a double wind fence and restriction of analysis to events where winds are light (< 5 m/s). Hydrometeors do not generally fall in still air, so adjustments to these properties' distributions within natural turbulence remain to be determined.