Background. Common cold viruses create significant health and financial burdens, and understanding key loci of transmission would help focus control strategies. This study (1) examines factors that influence when individuals transition from a negative to positive test (acquisition) or a positive to negative test (loss) of rhinovirus (HRV) and other respiratory tract viruses in 26 households followed weekly for one year, (2) investigates evidence for intrahousehold and interhousehold transmission and the characteristics of individuals implicated in transmission, and (3) builds data-based simulation models to identify factors that most strongly affect patterns of prevalence. Methods. We detected HRV, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, influenza and bocavirus with the FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC). We used logistic regression to find covariates affecting acquisition or loss of HRV including demographic characteristics of individuals, their household, their current infection status, and prevalence within their household and across the population. We apply generalized linear mixed models to test robustness of results. Results. Acquisition of HRV was less probable in older individuals and those infected with a coronavirus, and higher with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Loss of HRV is reduced with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Within households, only children and symptomatic individuals show evidence for transmission, while between households only a higher number of infected older children (ages 5-19) increases the probability of acquisition. Coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and bocavirus also show evidence of intrahousehold transmission. Simulations show that age-dependent susceptibility and transmission have the largest effects on mean HRV prevalence. Conclusions. Children are most likely to acquire and most likely to transmit HRV both within and between households, with infectiousness concentrated in symptomatic children. Simulations predict that the spread of HRV and other respiratory tract viruses can be reduced but not eliminated by practices within the home.
This project was a NSF-funded collaborative research project entitled: Collaborative Research: Deciphering Eolian Paleoenvironmental and Hydrodynamic records: Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, Colorado Plateau, USA This was a multifaceted interdisciplinary study of the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone (Ss)--a unique and distinctive unit in all of geologic history. This unit represents the largest known ancient desert (erg), and is typically classified as a record of a hyperarid environment. Furthermore, the Navajo Ss was deposited at a time when mammals were undergoing their first major diversification, and dinosaurs began to dominate the landscape in number and diversity. Our goal was to examine sedimentary features of the erg margin that recorded the active paleohydrology of the desert regime, and examine abundant trace- and body-fossil material to more fully document the structure and evolution of the biota in a variably arid landscape through Navajo Ss deposition. Field studies involved sedimentology and paleoecology. Laboratory studies involved isotope geochemistry of carbonate deposits, as well as thin section petrography.