This dataset contains code used to generate and the results of 2D numerical modeling simulations of ambient resonance in damaged rock slopes. All simulations were performed using the Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) version 7.0. We simulated progressive damage for three different landslide types: slab toppling, flexural toppling, and planar sliding. For each scenario we simulated several stages of progressive rock slope damage. Subsequently, we recorded the resonance response of the rock slope at each stage by measuring x-direction velocity at one or more measuring points throughout the model.
This data set contains 12-hour manual new snow and liquid precipitation equivalent (LPE) observations collected at the Alta-Collins (CLN) snow-study plot during the 2000–2023 cool seasons (October 1–April 30 with the year defined by the ending calendar year). CLN is located mid-mountain at Alta Ski Area in the Wasatch Range of northern Utah (approximately 111.63889W, 40.57607N) at an elevation of 2945 m.
The purpose of this derived dataset was to analyze menstrual cycle lengths in relation to lunar calendar. This datafile of start and end date of 3324 menstrual cycles of 581 women is part of a combined dataset of three cohorts of heterosexually active women who received instruction in the Creighton Model FertilityCare System (CrM) through centres across the United States and Canada. The CrM has standardised protocols for teaching women how to observe, record, and interpret daily vaginal discharge from bleeding and cervical fluid on a daily diary, called a CrM chart, and to use these standardised observations to identify the estimated time of ovulation and days when intercourse is likely to result in pregnancy. The cohorts included: "Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviours Assessment" (CEIBA) (2009–2013), a prospective cohort of women without known subfertility, aimed to evaluate and classify pregnancy rates and pregnancy intentions during use of the CrM; "Creighton Model MultiCenter Fecundability Study" (CMFS) (1990–1996), a retrospective cohort of presumably fertile and subfertile women using CrM, aimed to assess the relationship between vulvar mucus observations and the day and cycle-specific probabilities of conception; and "Time to Pregnancy in Normal Fertility" (TTP) (2003–2006), a parallel-randomised trial, which aimed to assess the impact of CrM use on time to pregnancy in couples of proven fertility trying to conceive. Each of the cohorts aimed to include heterosexually active couples with normal fecundity. Eligibility criteria were assessed by women's responses to the CrM general intake form and/or a screening questionnaire. Eligibility requirements in the original studies included women, age 18–40 years old (upper limit of 35 years for TTP), not pregnant at entry, having regular menstrual bleeding, and not breast feeding (CMFS and TTP), or if breast feeding, not doing so exclusively (CEIBA). Recent users of oral contraceptives had to have at least one menstrual bleed (CEIBA) or two menstrual bleeds (TTP) since stopping the oral contraceptives; however, for CMFS there was no restriction for time since discontinuing oral contraceptives. All studies also required normal menstrual patterns since last use of depo-medroxy-progesterone acetate or a hormonal intra-uterine device.
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted scientific research, teaching, and learning in higher education and forced many institutions to explore new modalities in response to the abrupt shift to remote learning. Accordingly, many colleges and universities struggled to provide the training, technology, and best practices to support faculty and students, especially those at historically disadvantaged and underrepresented institutions. In this study we investigate different remote learning modalities to improve and enhance research education training for faculty and students. We specifically focus on Responsible and Ethical Conduct of Research (RECR) and Research Mentoring content to help address the newly established requirements of the National Science Foundation for investigators. To address this need we conducted a workshop to determine the effectiveness of three common research education modalities: Live Lecture, Podcast, and Reading. The Live Lecture sessions provided the most evidence of learning based on the comparison between pre- and post-test results, whereas the Podcast format was well received but produced a slight (and non-significant) decline in scores between the pre- and post-tests. The Reading format showed no significant improvement in learning. The results of our workshop illuminate the effectiveness and obstacles associated with various remote learning modalities, enabling us to pinpoint areas that require additional refinement and effort, including the addition of interactive media in Reading materials.
This dataset contains GIS map data and monitoring datasets collected between 2018 and 2022 at the Courthouse Mesa rock slope instability near Moab, Utah. Map data consist of an orthophoto, a polyline shapefile delineating mapped surficial cracks, and a point shapefile showing the locations of crack width monitoring points (M1–M5) and a vibrating wire crackmeter. Monitoring data include four years of continuous crack aperture measurements from the crackmeter, periodic crack width measurements from M1–M5, and three sets of air temperature measurements recorded between 2018 and 2022. Air temperatures were measured at the surface and inside the crack at several depths throughout the monitoring period.
In the element database, major elements are reported in weight percent oxide (wt%). Trace element concentrations are reported in parts per million (ppm). Available lithologic information (“lithology” column) and the type of igneous sample (intrusive or extrusive in the “Sample-Type” column) were included. The name of the area or of the corresponding igneous body were included when available (“Location/Body-Name” column). The location of the samples is reported in decimal degrees (WGS84), however, uncertainties explained below must be considered. Coordinates were obtained from three different ways of presenting the information about the location. The three scenarios are distinguished as “GPS”, “Figure-Point”, and “Figure-Polygon” in the “Location-Type” column. Samples with a location in a coordinate system were transformed to decimal degrees (WGS84) and classified as “GPS”. Samples individually identified in a georeferenced geologic map were approximately located after georeferencing the map in Google Earth or ArcGis (“Figure-Point”). Samples identified with a polygon in a georeferenced map (through age, body name or unidentified sample locations), but without more detailed information were approximately located in the middle of the corresponding polygon after georeferencing the map in Google Earth or ArcGis (“Figure-Polygon”). Precise “GPS” locations were obtained for 358 analyses, and approximate locations were obtained for 428 analyses. The age information was organized using three categories: “Age-Approximation”, “Age-number”, and “Age-Error”. “Age-approximation” corresponds to the age information from original paper or from an additional reference detailed in the “Reference-Age” column. “Age-number” corresponds to the age reported in the original paper or previous compilation, or to the average age calculated from a given age range. “Age-Error” corresponds to the error presented in the original paper or previous compilation, or to half of the age range. Information about the methods, analyzed material and laboratory name was included when available. Lastly, the original data sources are available in the “Reference” column. References from previous compilations incorporated in this database are specified as “Compilation-Reference”. Additional references used for constraining the age are detailed in “Reference-Age” column.
Data that were incorrectly reported (e.g., reporting average compositions instead of sample composition) or with anomalous trace element concentrations were filtered-out from the element database. Analyses from weathered or altered samples producing high total volatile content (LOI> 5 wt%) were removed. Samples with no available information to approximately locate them or to constrain their age were eliminated. Despite this screening process, the database suffers from uncertainties related to approximated ages and locations and variable information regarding the lithology, and availability of trace elements The inhomogeneity in this database is explicit and uncertainties related to the age and location should be carefully considered in any interpretation. The final compilation contains 787 geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace elements) and includes data from 36 studies.
Abstract from Paper (Lange et. al, 2022): Atypical atrial flutter is seen post-ablation in patients, and it can be challenging to map. These flutters are typically set up around areas of scar in the left atrium. MRI can reliably identify left atrial scar. We propose a personalized computational model using patient specific scar information, to generate a monodomain model. In the model conductivities are adjusted for different tissue regions and flutter was induced with a premature pacing protocol. The model was tested prospectively in patients undergoing atypical flutter ablation. The simulation-predicted flutters were visualized and presented to clinicians. Validation of the computational model was motivated by recording from electroanatomical mapping. These personalized models successfully predicted clinically observed atypical flutter circuits and at times even better than invasive maps leading to flutter termination at isthmus sites predicted by the model.
The objective of using the wireless sensors was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity of healthcare worker (HCW) contact with patients and the physical environment in patients’ rooms. The framework and design were based on contact networks with a) nodes defined by HCW’s, rooms, and items in the room and b) edges defined by HCW’s in the room, near the bed, and touching items. Nodes had characteristics of HCW role and room number. Edges had characteristics of day, start time, and duration. Thus, patterns and heterogeneity could be understood within contexts of time, space, roles, and patient characteristics. At the University of Utah Hospital Cardiovascular ICU (CVICU), a 20-bed unit, we collected data for 54 days. HCW contact with patients was measured using wireless sensors to capture time spent in patient rooms as well as time spent near the patient bed. HCW contact with the physical environment was measured using wireless sensors on the following items in patient rooms: door, sink, toilet, over-bed table, keyboard, vital signs monitor touchscreen, and cart. HCW’s clipped a sensor to their clothing or lanyard.
This study investigates the internal facies architecture of a river-dominated delta deposit using outcrops of the Cretaceous Panther Tongue of the Star Point Sandstone in central Utah, U.S.A. A series of photorealistic virtual outcrop models (VOM) were created from ~13 linear-km of outcrop. These VOMs, alongside field observations, were used to identify and map facies and facies associations over the ~25 m-thick stratigraphic interval. A new workflow for querying VOMs as outcrop analogs for subsurface reservoir analogs was developed, using a database of measurements (Panther Tongue - outcrop analog - metric database) was constructed using 60 digital sections that were measured within the VOMs at 152 m (~500 ft) spacing. This database characterizes a total of 508 sandstone beds by their thickness, length, and dip, from which the average thickness (0.78 m), bed length (330 m), and bed dip (2˚ towards the south) were calculated. Thinning rates were also calculated in both depositional strike and depositional dip directions (1.37x10-2 and 1.01x10-2 respectively). The workflow established in this study is applicable to other sedimentary outcrops and environments, thus demonstrating that VOMs can be used as a basis for quantitative database development and reservoir modeling inputs.
The data was obtained from the FDTD simulations. For one of the FDTD simulations, the conductivity data for British Columbia was used in order to obtain the simulated data. The data obtained from simulations are post-processed using MATLAB for plotting the figures in the paper.
This dataset summarizes burial counts according to burial type (free, temporary, or perpetual) for the cemeteries of Père-Lachaise, Montmartre, and Montparnasse in Paris. The data covers the period of 1804 to 1840 and was derived from the digitized daily records of burial for the city of Paris, which are currently held in the Archives de Paris. See Registres journaliers d'inhumation https://archives.paris.fr/r/216/cimetieres). These data are organized by the number of each burial type recorded per page of the digitized records.
This dataset accounts for all jobs undertaken by the Société Le Roy Bouillon, a funerary monuments company in Paris, from 1890 to 1902. The first sheet, “Activity Data” accounts for each job and the fee charged to the client for that job. It also categories each job as either a new cemetery construction, maintenance to existing cemetery structures, or other jobs unrelated to cemetery construction. The second sheet, “Outside Paris,” summarizes the annual activity, recording the number of projects undertaken within Paris versus outside of the city, new constructions versus maintenance work, and revenue coming in from each type of job. The original records are currently housed in a private collection in Paris and were manually transcribed by the author.
The dataset was collected in the process of carrying out a research on the effects of photochemical aging and interactions with secondary organic aerosols on cellular toxicity of combustion particles between the year 2021 to 2022
This dataset is based on the 1816, two-volume publication, Le champ du repos, ou le Cimetière Mont-Louis, dit du Père Delachaise. Compiled over the course of 1815 by MM. Roger and Roger (a father-son team), Le champ du repos contains the epitaphs and scale drawing of over 2000 monuments present in the cemetery of Père-Lachaise (Paris, France) by the end of 1815. The author of this dataset has combined the information from this volume (including demographics of the deceased drawn from epitaphs, visual characteristics of monuments, and the locations of monuments within the cemetery) with data from the digitized records of burial available from the Archives de Paris ( https://archives.paris.fr/r/216/cimetieres/). Thus, this dataset details every known monument present in the Cemetery of Père-Lachaise by the end of 1815 with information about the type of burial (free, temporary, or perpetual) that it marked.
This dataset covers all of the marbriers (stonecutters) listed in the commercial almanacs for the city of Paris from 1798 to 1907. The author used the almanacs available digitally on the Bibliothèque nationale de France's digital library, Gallica (gallica.bnf.fr). The dataset was initially compiled to study the development of the funerary monuments industry in Paris, although the dataset aggregates all stonemasons' enterprises and ateliers regardless of their field of specialization. Binary variables are included in the dataset, based on text descriptions in the almanacs, to indicate named areas of specialization.
Historically, the compilation of the annual commercial almanacs was a project undertaken by two different publishers (Bottin and Firmin Didot), who eventually merged in 1857. Every year, in addition to the information that had already been collected, corrections and additions were solicited from the general public. According to the notice included at the beginning of the 1838 issue, listing in the almanac was (and always had been) free. If one wanted details in addition to a general category of work to be included in a record, individuals needed to contact the editor directly (there is no mention of what this might have cost). See: Sébastien Bottin, Almanach du commerce de Paris, des départemens de la France, et des principals villes du monde (Paris, 1838); and Firmin Didot et Bottin Réunis, Annuaire et almanac du commerce, de l’industrie, de la magistrature et de l’administration (Paris: 1857).
We determined whether a large, multi-analyte panel of circulating biomarkers can improve detection of early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We defined a biologically relevant subspace of blood analytes based on previous identification in premalignant lesions or early-stage PDAC and evaluated each in pilot studies. The 31 analytes that met minimum diagnostic accuracy were measured in serum of 837 subjects (461 healthy, 194 benign pancreatic disease, 182 early stage PDAC). We used machine learning to develop classification algorithms using the relationship between subjects based on their changes across the predictors. Model performance was subsequently evaluated in an independent validation data set from 186 additional subjects.
This is the IDL code used to create the results published in Mace, G. G., Benson, S., Humphries, R., Gombert P. M., Sterner, E.: Natural marine cloud brightening in the Southern Ocean, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. The IDL code processes MOD03 geolocation fields, MOD06_L2 cloud retrievals, MODIS ocean color chlorophyll-a concentrations and CERES shortwave albedo data that is distributed by NASA data archives. It creates statistical results for non-precipitating or weakly precipitating warm, liquid, shallow, marine boundary layer clouds.
The data are bed-scale measurements taken from virtual outcrop models (Morris, E.A., Atlas, C.E., Johnson, C.L., 2023, Architectural analysis of the Panther Tongue - virtual outcrop models) and calibrated with measurements taken at outcrop in the field.
Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) have been studied using a variety of seismic phases; however, their physical origin is still poorly understood. Short period ScP (S wave converted to, and reflected as, P wave from the core-mantle boundary) waveforms are extensively used to infer ULVZ properties because they may be sensitive to all ULVZ elastic moduli. However, ScP waveforms are additionally complicated by the effects of path attenuation, coherent noise, and source-time function (STF) complexity. To address these complications, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian inversion method that allows us to invert ScP waveforms from multiple events simultaneously and accounts for path attenuation and correlated noise. The inversion method is tested with synthetic predictions which show that the inclusion of attenuation is imperative to recover ULVZ parameters and that the ULVZ thickness and S-wave velocity decrease (δVS) are most reliably recovered. Utilizing multiple events reduces the effects of coherent noise and STF complexity, which in turns allows for the inclusion of more data to be used in the analyses. We next applied the method to ScP data recorded in Australia for 291 events that sample the CMB beneath the Coral Sea. Our results indicate that S-wave velocity across the region is ~-14% in average, but there is a greater variability in the south than that in the north. P-wave velocity reductions and density perturbations are mostly below 10%. These ScP data show more than one ScP post-cursor in some areas which may indicate complex 3-D ULVZ structures. Seismic data are provided for 291 earthquakes in Northern Territory, Australia.
Abstract: Data for Performance evaluation of the Alphasense OPC-N3 and Plantower PMS5003 sensor in measuring dust events in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah
This data file was used to estimate the performance of the Alphasense OPC-N3 and PMS5003 sensor in measuring ambient PM10, especially during dust events, and to obtain correction factors to correct the PMS5003 data. During April 2022, the OPC-N3 and PMS5003 sensors were collocated with federal equivalent method (FEM)at two Utah Division of Air Quality (UDAQ) sites: Hawthorne (HW) station and Environmental Quality (EQ) station. One residential site (RS)was also tested, with OPC-N3 and PMS5003 collocated with GRIMM portable aerosol spectrophotometer. The FEM data (PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations) and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature) for the two UDAQ sites were downloaded from the EPA website. The Excel sheet contained all the raw data and the processed data. The FEM, OPC-N3, and PMS5003 measurements were labeled as FEM-YYY, OPC-YYY, and PMS-YYY, where YYY represents the sites nomenclature, i.e., HW, EQ, and RS. The sheet labeled “HW”, “RS”, and,” EQ” contained the raw measurements (meteorological, PM10, and PM2.5 (whenever applicable)) for the sites. The sheet” PM-ratio-based correlation” provided the data used to get the PM-ratio-based correlation. Briefly, based on the ratio of FEM-HW PM2.5/PM10, the FEM-HW and PMS-HW PM10 measurements were segregated into six bins: PM2.5/PM10: <0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5, 0.5-0.7, and >0.7. For each bin, the co-located PMS-HW PM10 concentrations were linearly regressed against the FEM-HW PM10 concentrations to obtain correction factors (slope and intercept). These correction factors were later used to correct the PMS PM10 concentrations at the other two locations (RS and EQ), presented in the sheets with labels “RS correction using GRIMM ratio”, “RS correction using opc ratio” and “EQ corrected using EQ ratio”. Each sheet also includes the calculation of RMSE and NRMSE of OPC-YYY and PMS-YYY against FEM-YYY, with YYY as the site nomenclature.
The dataset contains Gas Chromatography (GC) data pertaining to the bulk electrolytic experiments, biocatalytic, organocatalytic reactions, and standards used in the study. The standard GC files calibrate the sensitivity of the column in the Gas Chromatograph to 1-heptanol, heptanal, and the corresponding alpha-hydrazino aldehyde. This information is used to quantify the peaks of 1-heptanol and heptanal obtained in the bulk electrolytic experiments and the alpha-hydrazino aldehyde obtained in the organocatalytic step.
This file contains experimental data from the Ph.D. thesis “Mechanisms Governing Ash Aerosol Formation and Deposition during Solid Fuel Combustion” at the University of Utah. The data include particle sizes, weights, and compositions of ash aerosols and deposits formed in the combustion of a range of fossil and biomass solid fuels under a wide range of conditions. Operation pressure, fuel composition and combustor scale are changed across these tests. These experimental data can provide information and inputs for further studies, such as modeling the ash deposition process, in the future.
Research background: Concern about global warming has called for new combustion systems to be used in order to reduce CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation. Pressurized oxy-coal combustion coupled with carbon capture and storage as well as co-firing biomass with coal are gaining more interest in building new power plants and retrofitting existing plants. The combustion conditions of these systems could be significantly changed and thus affect the ash formation and deposition. The experimental work of this thesis consists of combustion tests at various scales and conditions, namely, on a 100 kWth rated oxy-fuel combustor (OFC), a 300 kWth rated entrained flow pressurized reactor (EFPR), a 1.5 MWth rated horizontal multifuel combustor (L1500) and a 500 MWe full-size utility boiler (Hunter). The solid fuels involved in these tests include pulverized coal, torrefied wood, blend fuels of the coal and wood, and coal with K/Cl/S additives. In each test, iso-kinetically sampled ash aerosols are analyzed in terms of particle size distributions and size-segregated compositions. Ash deposition rates are measured using a surface-temperature-controlled probe which simulates the deposition process on superheater tubes.
This dataset contains the materials necessary to reproduce the study submitted to Remote Sensing: "Tradeoffs Between UAS Spatial Resolution and Accuracy for Deep Learning Semantic Segmentation Applied to Wetland Vegetation Species Mapping". This includes the raw imagery output from the camera aboard the unoccupied aerial vehicle, the Red-Edge MX, captured over the Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area, Utah, in August of 2020, resampled images, code to resample the images, a link to ground reference data, and the training and testing data used for the convolutional neural network in the study.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Ground Motion Amplification at Natural Rock Arches in the Colorado Plateau ," where we analyzed 13 sandstone arches in Utah, computing site-to-reference spectral amplitude ratios from continuous ambient seismic data and comparing these to spectral ratios during earthquakes and teleseismic activity. Included in this dataset are the arch vibration data.
We discuss a new set of ~ 500 numerical n-body calculations designed to constrain the masses and bulk densities of Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Comparisons of different techniques for deriving the semimajor axis and eccentricity of the four satellites favor methods relying on the theory of Lee & Peale (2006), where satellite orbits are derived in the context of the restricted three body problem (Pluto, Charon, and one massless satellite). In each simulation, we adopt the nominal satellite masses derived in Kenyon & Bromley (2019b), multiply the mass of at least one satellite by a numerical factor f >= 1, and establish whether the system ejects at least one satellite on a time scale <= 4.5~Gyr. When the total system mass is large (f >> 1), ejections of Kerberos are more common. Systems with lower satellite masses (f ~ 1) usually eject Styx. In these calculations, Styx often signals an ejection by moving to higher orbital inclination long before ejection; Kerberos rarely signals in a useful way. The n-body results suggest that Styx and Kerberos are more likely to have bulk densities comparable with water ice, rho_SK <= 2 g/cm^3, than with rock. A strong upper limit on the total system mass, M_SNKH <= 9.5 x 10^19 g, also places robust constraints on the average bulk density of the four satellites, rho_SNKH <= 1.4 g/cm^3. These limits support models where the satellites grow out of icy material ejected during a major impact on Pluto or Charon.
Detailed ground-based observations of snow are scarce in remote regions such as the Arctic. Here, Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) measurements of over 55,000 solid hydrometeors — obtained during a two-year period from August 2016 to August 2018 at Oliktok Point, Alaska — are analyzed and compared to similar measurements from an earlier experiment at Alta, Utah. In general, distributions of hydrometeor fall speed, fall orientation, aspect ratio, flatness, and complexity (i.e., riming degree) were observed to be very similar between the two locations, except that Arctic hydrometeors tended to be smaller. In total, the slope parameter defining a negative exponential of the size distribution was approximately 50% steeper in the Arctic as at Alta. 66% of particles were observed to be rimed or moderately rimed, with some suggestion that riming is favored by weak boundary layer stability. On average, the fall speed of rimed particles was not notably different from aggregates. However, graupel density and fall speed increase as cloud temperatures approach the melting point.
This dataset includes a 3-D model of the Courthouse Mesa toppling rock slab instability in Utah. These data were used in conjunction with ambient seismic array data to conduct modal analyses and improve the structural characterization of the rock slope instability. Data include a 3-D model of the rock slope instability (.stl) and a COMSOL Multiphysics project file showing the boundary conditions and solutions of the best model run (.mph). This dataset accompanies the research article entitled "Rock slope instability structural characterization using array-based modal analysis."
The similar orbital distances and incidence rates of debris disks and the prominent rings observed in protoplanetary disks suggest a potential connection between these structures. We explore this connection with new calculations that follow the evolution of rings of pebbles and planetesimals as they grow into planets and generate dusty debris. Depending on the initial solid mass and planetesimal formation efficiency, the calculations predict diverse outcomes for the resulting planet masses and accompanying debris signature. When compared with debris disk incidence rates as a function of luminosity and time, the model results indicate that the known population of bright cold debris disks can be explained by rings of solids with the (high) initial masses inferred for protoplanetary disk rings and modest planetesimal formation efficiencies that are consistent with current theories of planetesimal formation. These results support the possibility that large protoplanetary disk rings evolve into the known cold debris disks. The inferred strong evolutionary connection between protoplanetary disks with large rings and mature stars with cold debris disks implies that the remaining majority population of low-mass stars with compact protoplanetary disks leave behind only modest masses of residual solids at large radii and evolve primarily into mature stars without detectable debris beyond 30 au. The approach outlined here illustrates how combining observations with detailed evolutionary models of solids strongly constrains the global evolution of disk solids and underlying physical parameters such as the efficiency of planetesimal formation and the possible existence of invisible reservoirs of solids in protoplanetary disks.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Ambient vibration modal analysis of natural rock towers and fins," where we investigate the ambient vibrations of 14 rock rowers and perform modal analysis on 3D models of the landforms. Included are the vibration data and 3D models.
This dataset encompasses the valid, completed, and qualitative data collected during the 2021 “Survey of Anime Convention Attendance in Response to Covid-19.” This survey was distributed online through social media platforms, community spaces, and industry listservs/resources in order to reach organizers, attendees, and fans of anime conventions (i.e., “cons”). The survey was intended to discover how those who attend anime conventions (i.e., "con-goers") have been experiencing changes in the anime convention scene during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in 2020-2021. Traditionally, anime cons and con-related activities such as cosplay (dressing up as a favorite character) are held in person. However, in 2020-2021, most cons have been cancelled or moved online; this is the first time in over 40 years, in the US and worldwide, that the anime convention scene has been so quiet. With this survey, investigators sought to capture firsthand impressions of this unprecedented moment, learning how con-goers were experiencing these changes and whether they had safety or other concerns about anime cons returning in late 2021 and early 2022.
Classification of barrier island morphology stems from the seminal work of M. O. Hayes and others, which linked island shape to tidal range and wave height and defined coastal energy regimes (i.e., wave-dominated, mixed energy, tide-dominated). If true, this general relationship represents a process-based framework to link modern and ancient systems, and is key for determining paleomorphodynamic relationships. Here we present a new semi-global database of barrier islands and spits (n = 702). Shape parameters (aspect, circularity, and roundness) are used to quantify island boundary shape, and assess potential correlation with coastal energy regime using global wave and tide models. In adopting the original energy classification as originally put forth (i.e., wave dominated, wave-influenced mixed, tide-influenced mixed, tide dominated), results show that wave-dominated islands have statistically different mean shape values from those in the mixed energy fields, but the two mixed energy designations are not distinct from each other. Furthermore, each energy regime field contains a wide range of island shapes, with no clear trends present. Linear regression modeling shows that tidal range and wave height account for < 10% of the documented variance in island shape, a strong indication that other controls must be considered. Therefore, while energy regime distinctions can be used descriptively, their utility in predicting and constraining island shape is limited: barrier island shape is not indicative of coastal energy regime, and vice versa. Our analysis also demonstrates empirical scaling relationships among modern barrier islands for the first time, with implications for subsurface prediction. and This is the dataset of the Modern Barrier Island Database published in Mulhern et al., 2017 Marine Geology paper titled "Is Barrier Island Morphology a Function of Wave and Tide Regime?" with the DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2017.02.016. If using this dataset please cite both the dataset and the paper.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of face shields on the concentration of respirable aerosols in the breathing zone of the wearer. The experimental approach involved the generation of poly-dispersed respirable test dust aerosol in a low-speed wind tunnel over 15 minutes, with a downstream breathing mannequin. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the breathing zone of the mannequin and at an upstream location using two laser spectrophotometers that measured particle number concentration over the range 0.25-31 µm. Three face shield designs were tested (A, B and C), and were positioned on the mannequin operated at a high and low breathing rate. Efficiency – the reduction in aerosol concentration in the breathing zone – was calculated as a function of particle size and overall, for each face shield. Face shield A, a bucket hat with flexible shield, had the highest efficiency, approximately 95%, while more traditional face shield designs had efficiency 53-78%, depending on face shield and breathing rate. Efficiency varied by particle size, but the pattern differed among face shield designs. Face shields decreased the concentration of respirable aerosols in the breathing zone, when aerosols were carried perpendicular to the face. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of face shield position relative to the source.
The Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID) is a new evaporation-based optical and thermal instrument designed to measure the mass, size, density, and type of individual hydrometeors and their bulk properties. Hydrometeor spatial dimensions are measured on a heated metal plate using an infrared camera by exploiting the much higher thermal emissivity of water compared with metal. As a melted hydrometeor evaporates, its mass can be directly related to the loss of heat from the hotplate assuming energy conservation across the hydrometeor. The heat-loss required to evaporate a hydrometeor is found to be independent of environmental conditions including ambient wind velocity, moisture level, and temperature. The difference in heat loss for snow versus rain for a given mass offers a method for discriminating precipitation phase. The DEID measures hydrometeors at sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz with masses and effective diameters greater than 1 µg and 200 µm, respectively, determined by the size of the hotplate and the thermal camera specifications. Measurable snow water equivalent (SWE) precipitation rates range from 0.001 to 200 mm h−1, as validated against a standard weighing bucket. Preliminary field-experiment measurements of snow and rain from the winters of 2019 and 2020 provided continuous automated measurements of precipitation rate, snow density, and visibility. Measured hydrometeor size distributions agree well with canonical results described in the literature. and A new precipitation sensor, the Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID), is used to provide the first continuous measurements of the mass, diameter, and density of individual hydrometeors. The DEID consists of an infrared camera pointed at a heated aluminum plate. It exploits the contrasting thermal emissivity of water and metal to determine individual particle mass by assuming that energy is conserved during the transfer of heat from the plate to the particle during evaporation. Particle density is determined from a combination of particle mass and morphology. A Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) was deployed alongside the DEID to provide refined imagery of particle size and shape. Broad consistency is found between derived mass-diameter and density-diameter relationships and those obtained in prior studies. However, DEID measurements show a generally weaker dependence with size for hydrometeor density and a stronger dependence for aggregate snowflake mass.
This study of the role and impact of the subject selector in academic libraries is unique and long overdue. We focused on the Pac-12 university libraries, a representative sample of nationwide academic libraries. The strength of our investigation is this small, focused sample size and unique statistical analysis of subject specialists. There is a wide variety among these libraries with respect to the hiring requirements for MLIS, the MLIS with an additional advanced-subject master’s degree, and those libraries who hire non-MLIS librarians. This investigation has the possibility of promoting greater awareness for the future of subject specialists in academic libraries.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Etiology-Specific Remodeling in Ventricular Tissue of Heart Failure Patients and its Implications for Computational Modeling of Electrical Conduction," where we quantified fibrosis and performed electrophysiological simulation to investigate electrical propagation in etiologically varied heart failure tissue samples. Included are raw confocal microscopic images, data for extracting and processing the raw images and script to analyze fibrosis and generate meshes for simulation.
This dataset comprises MODTRAN radiative transfer simulations used to determine scene-specific enhancement spectra for matched filter retrieval of CH4 and CO2 concentrations from imaging spectroscopy data. An example implementation to generate a enhancement spectrum is also included.
Environmental noise may affect hearing and a variety of non-auditory disease processes. There is some evidence that, like other environmental hazards, noise may be differentially distributed across communities based on socioeconomic status. We aimed to a) predict daytime noise pollution levels and b) assess disparities in daytime noise exposure in Chicago, Illinois. We measured 5-minute daytime noise levels (Leq, 5-min) at 75 randomly selected sites in Chicago in March, 2019. Geographically-based variables thought to be associated with noise were obtained, and used to fit a noise land-use regression model to estimate the daytime environmental noise level at the centroid of the census blocks. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from the City of Chicago for the 77 community areas, and associations with daytime noise levels were assessed using spatial autoregressive models. Mean sampled noise level (Leq, 5-min) was 60.6 dBA. The adjusted R2 and root mean square error of the noise land use regression model and the validation model were 0.60 and 4.67 dBA and 0.51 and 5.90 dBA, respectively. Nearly 75% of city blocks and 85% of city communities have predicted daytime noise level higher than 55 dBA. Of the socioeconomic variables explored, only community per capita income was associated with mean community predicted noise levels, and was highest for communities with incomes in the 2nd quartile. Both the noise measurements and land-use regression modeling demonstrate that Chicago has levels of environmental noise likely contributing to the total burden of environmental stressors. Noise is not uniformly distributed across Chicago; it is associated with proximity to roads and public transportation, and is higher among communities with mid-to-low incomes per capita, which highlights how socially and economically disadvantaged communities may be disproportionately impacted by this environmental exposure.
Significance: Current medical imaging systems have many limitations for applications in cardiovascular diseases. New technologies may overcome these limitations. Particularly interesting are technologies for diagnosis of cardiac diseases, e.g. fibrosis, myocarditis, and transplant rejection.
Aim: To introduce and assess a new optical system capable of assessing cardiac muscle tissue using light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) in conjunction with machine learning.
Approach: We applied an ovine model to investigate if the new LSS system is capable of estimating densities of cell nuclei in cardiac tissue. We measured the nuclear density using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and image processing. Spectra acquired from the same cardiac tissues were analyzed with spectral clustering and convolutional neural networks to assess feasibility and reliability of density quantification.
Results: Spectral clustering revealed distinct groups of spectra correlated to ranges of nuclear density. Convolutional neural networks correctly classified 3 groups of spectra with low, medium, or high nuclear density with 95.00±11.77% (mean and standard deviation) accuracy. The analysis revealed sensitivity of the accuracy to wavelength range and subsampling of spectra.
Conclusions: LSS and machine learning are capable of assessing nuclear density in cardiac tissues. The approach could be useful for diagnosis of cardiac diseases associated with an increase of nuclei.
This dataset accompanies the research article entitled, "Vibration of Natural Rock Arches and Towers Excited by Helicopter-Sourced Infrasound," where we investigate the vibration response of seven landforms to helicopter-sourced infrasound during controlled flight. Included are time-series vibration data of the landforms and nearby ground during and before helicopter flight, time-series infrasound data, 3D photogrammetry models of the studied landforms, and GPS data from the helicopter.
We analyzed 4,754 broadband seismic recordings of the SKS, SKKS, and SPdKS wavefield from 13 high quality events sampling the Samoa ultralow-velocity zone (ULVZ). We measured differential travel-times and amplitudes between the SKKS and SKS arrivals, which are highly sensitive to the emergence of the SPdKS seismic phase, which is in turn highly sensitive to lowermost mantle velocity perturbations such as generated by ULVZs. We modeled these data using a 2-D axi-symmetric waveform modeling approach and are able to explain these data with a single ULVZ. In order to predict both travel-time and amplitude perturbations we found that a large ULVZ length in the great circle arc direction on the order of 10° or larger is required. The large ULVZ length limits acceptable ULVZ elastic parameters. Here we find that δVS and δVP reductions from 20% to 22% and 15% to 17% respectively gives us the best fit, with a thickness of 26 km. Initial 3-D modeling efforts do not recover the extremes in the differential measurements, demonstrating that 3-D effects are important and must be considered in the future. However, the 3-D modeling is generally consistent with the velocity reductions recovered with the 2-D modeling. These velocity reductions are compatible with a compositional component to the ULVZ. Furthermore, geodynamic predictions for a compositional ULVZ that is moving predict a long linear shape similar to the shape of the Samoa ULVZ we confirm in this study.
and This collection includes radial component displacement seismograms in the time window including the SKS, SKKS and SPdKS seismic arrivals. These data all interact with the Samoa ultra-low velocity zone at the core-mantle boundary. All data used in the study of Krier et al., 2021 (JGR) is included in this collection.
Using a suite of numerical calculations, we consider the long-term evolution of
circumbinary debris from the Pluto--Charon giant impact. Initially, these solids
have large eccentricity and pericenters near Charon's orbit. On time scales of
100--1000 yr, dynamical interactions with Pluto and Charon lead to the ejection
of most solids from the system. As the dynamics moves particles away from the
barycenter, collisional damping reduces the orbital eccentricity of many particles.
These solids populate a circumbinary disk in the Pluto-Charon orbital plane; a large
fraction of this material lies within a `satellite zone' that encompasses the orbits
of Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Compared to the narrow rings generated from the
debris of a collision between a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and Charon,
disks produced after the giant impact are much more extended and may be a less promising option for producing small circumbinary satellites.
We apply Bayesian inference to instrument calibration and experimental-data uncertainty analysis for the specific application of measuring radiative intensity with a narrow-angle radiometer. We develop a physics-based instrument model that describes temporally varying radiative intensity, the indirectly measured quantity of interest, as a function of scenario and model parameters. We identify a set of five uncertain parameters, find their probability distributions (the posterior or inverse problem) given the calibration data by applying Bayes’ Theorem, and employ a local linearization to marginalize the nuisance parameters resulting from errors-in-variables. We then apply the instrument model to a new scenario that is the intended use of the instrument, a 1.5 MW coal-fired furnace. Unlike standard error propagation, this Bayesian method infers values for the five uncertain parameters by sampling from the posterior distribution and then computing the intensity with quantifiable uncertainty at the point of a new, in-situ furnace measurement (the posterior predictive or forward problem). Given the instrument-model context of this analysis, the propagated uncertainty provides a significant proportion of the measurement error for each in-situ furnace measurement. With this approach, we produce uncertainties at each temporal measurement of the radiative intensity in the furnace, successfully identifying temporal variations that were otherwise indistinguishable from measurement uncertainty.
Objective: In 2018, the Network of the National Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) launched a national sponsorship program to support U.S. public library staff in completing the Medical Library Association’s (MLA) Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The primary objective of this research project was to determine if completion of the sponsored specialization was successful in improving public library staff ability to provide consumer health information and whether it resulted in new services, programming, or outreach activities at public libraries. Secondary objectives of this research were to determine motivation for and benefits of the specialization and to determine the impact on sponsorship on obtaining and continuing the specialization.
Methods: To evaluate the sponsorship program, we developed and administered a 16-question online survey via REDCap in August 2019 to 224 public library staff that were sponsored during the first year of the program. We measured confidence and competence in providing consumer health information using questions aligned with the eight Core Competencies for Providing Consumer Health Information Services . Additionally, the survey included questions about new consumer health information activities at public libraries, public library staff motivation to obtain the specialization, and whether it led to immediate career gains. To determine the overall value of the NNLM sponsorship, we measured whether funding made it more likely for participants to complete or continue the specialization.
Results: Overall, 136 participants (61%) responded to the survey. Our findings indicated that the program was a success: over 80% of participants reported an increase in core consumer health competencies, with a statistically significant improvement in mean competency scores after completing the specialization. Ninety percent of participants have continued their engagement with NNLM, and over half offered new health information programs and services at their public library. All respondents indicated that completing the specialization met their expectations, but few reported immediate career gains. While over half of participants planned to renew the specialization or obtain the more advanced, Level II specialization, 72% indicated they would not continue without the NNLM sponsorship.
Conclusion: Findings indicate that NNLM sponsorship of the CHIS specialization was successful in increasing the ability of public library staff to provide health information to their community. and This dataset represents the de-identified raw results of a 16-question, online survey (via REDCap) collected in August 2019 to 224 public library staff who were sponsored for a Consumer Health Information Specialization (CHIS). The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sponsorship program had an impact on public library staff to provide consumer health information.